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Conclusion

Aggression is often divided into two categories: (1) cold, calculated attempts to attain an objective regardless of the cost to someone and (2) emotions that overwhelm the person’s judgment. Anger is now generally believed to come from frustration. Anger is set off by different things in different people. Both rigid and paranoid personalities feel their autonomy is under constant threat. As a result, they are often chronically tense and become very angry if they are not allowed to be in charge. People with underlying narcissistic issues will become enraged if their self-esteem is threatened. Individuals with borderline psychopathology are particularly vulnerable to loss of a major romantic attachment. Under stress, most people are “on edge,” and when their aims are frustrated they become angry, but not enraged as do people with narcissistic or borderline personality issues. Alcohol drugs and depression can all increase irritability.

Aggressive behavior does not arise simply because there is a drive to be aggressive. There also needs to be a release of inhibitions. Those with narcissistic personality issues are predisposed to acting aggressively not simply because of the intensity of their anger, but because their devaluation of others decreases their inhibitions. Group dynamics, certain cultures, alcohol and drugs can all reduce inhibitions constraining the use of violence.


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