Glossary 279 qualifier A word or a phrase used to soften a statement, such as "perhaps," "sometimes," "it's possible," "it might be," or "it could be." Qualifiers suggest that you're reasonable and open to input from others. reflective listening A technique a person can use to show that he or she is listening attentively and to ensure accurate understanding. The person might reflect back what he or she heard like this: "If I un- derstand what you're saying, then you would like more time to do this job, is that right?" reinforcement An event that follows after a behavior and that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated. Non-psychologists usually equate reinforcement with reward. resource hog A person who is so focused on his or her own work unit that others suffer. Not team players or systems thinkers, resource hogs often do what they do because they really want to do a good job, but their focus is too narrow. returning responsibility Communicating to the employee that he or she is expected to be an active participant in problem solving. self-talk What we say to ourselves, in our heads. Self-talk reminds us how we should react and behave in various situations. substantive conflict Conflict that occurs as a result of a real (or apparent) disagreement about how things should be done, who should do it, or similar areas. Its roots are based in the premise that two well-