Glossary 277 difficult person Someone whom you or others do not like to interact with, due to stubbornness, abusiveness, or other difficult behavior. Difficult people get in the way of getting work done, and cause stress for others. difficult-person vicious cycle The situation that develops when two or more people consider each other to be difficult and then react negatively, causing an unpleasant interaction to grow progressively more difficult, as behavior becomes worse on both or all sides. emotional feedback Information about the emotional reactions of others toward the person or his or her behavior. empathy responses Things you can say that show that you understand the emotions of the person you are talking to. factual feedback Information about the results or outcomes of the person's behavior that is based on factual observations (what you see or hear or touch, for example). feedback Information about the effects of one's actions on others or on achieving results. It comes from outside the person, either from other people or naturally in the process of doing a task. formal authority tools Things you can do because you're in management, giving you more power and authority as a result. Examples might include taking disciplinary action, laying down the law, and using per- formance-management techniques. garden-variety difficult person Someone whose behavior you consider difficult, but not in ways that are intentionally harmful, although the results may be quite destructive. guerrilla attacks Attacks that occur behind your back, often among other employees. indicators of violence Signs that a person has the potential to be violent. These are possible clues, not evidence. Even experts are not very good at predicting workplace violence. The most reliable indicators will cause more prediction errors than prediction hits. infallibility comments Questions or statements that sound as if the speaker believes he or she couldn't possibly be wrong. Such comments generally cause others to stop listening and start attacking. initial approach The bedrock or foundation of creating a win-win situation; the first contact made by the manager towards the employee to present the option of working together and to get a commitment to do so. insubordination Deliberate refusal to do specific job tasks or reasonably alter job-related behavior. interactivity The degree to which two people can interact in real time. less-than communication Comments or questions that hint that the other person is stupid or otherwise less than the person speaking or others. "Less-than" communication is almost always about the person; it's better to focus on behavior. managing conflict A process used to minimize the negative aspects and effects of the conflict and maximize the positive aspects and effects.