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Preface > Conventions Used in This Book

Conventions Used in This Book

I'll use a number of conventions you should know about in this book. For example, menu items are separated with an like this: File New Project. To make them stand out, new lines of code will be highlighted when they're first added. Example code is often presented out of context; instead of developing an entire class, only the relevant block of code is presented. Most examples will include the necessary import statements for Commons-relevant classes, and other import statements will be implied. When code is omitted or implied, it is represented by ellipses:

import org.apache.commons.digester.Digester;
Digester digester = new Digester( );
digester.doSomething( );

The following typographical conventions are also used in this book:

Plain text

Indicates menu titles, menu options, menu buttons, and keyboard accelerators.


Indicates new terms, URLs, email addresses, filenames, file extensions, pathnames, directories, and Unix utilities.

Constant width

Indicates commands, options, switches, variables, types, classes, namespaces, methods, modules, properties, parameters, values, objects, events, event handlers, and XML tags.

Constant width italic

Indicates text that should be replaced with user-supplied values.


This icon designates a note that is an important aside to the nearby text.


This icon designates a warning relating to the nearby text.

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