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Part: III Appendixes > Pattern Group B: Creating a Navigation Framework

Pattern Group B: Creating a Navigation Framework

B1 MULTIPLE WAYS TO NAVIGATE

Brinck, T. , D. Gergle , and S. Wood . (2002) Usability for the Web: Designing Web Sites That Work. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.
See description under Chapter 5—Processes for Developing Customer-Centered Sites.

Garrett, J . (No date) Information Architecture Resources. (http://www.jjg.net/ia)
This is a great resource for learning more about information architecture.

InformationDesign.org: http://www.informationdesign.org
This Web site is a hub for books, organizations, mailing lists, and other Web sites devoted to information design.

Lakoff, G . (1990) Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
This book analyzes categories of language and thought from a cognitive science perspective. It also has one of the coolest titles of any book published in the twentieth century, which refers to how an Australian aboriginal language uses the same classifier to describe women, fire, and dangerous things.

Larson, K. , and M. Czerwinski . (1998) Web page design: Implications of memory, structure and scent for information retrieval. CHI 1998, ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI Letters, 1(1): 25–32.
This study examines the trade-off between breadth and depth for information architectures with respect to preference and performance. Breadth means that the architecture is designed so that many pieces of information are displayed per page (leading to a broad and shallow graph), and depth means that there are fewer pieces of information (leading to a narrow and deep graph). A total of 512 items from Microsoft Encarta were arranged into three Web sites differing in breadth and depth. The overall results were that increased depth led to longer browse times, while a balance between breadth and depth outperformed the broadest and shallowest structure. These findings lend more evidence to the theory that fewer clicks and fewer levels work better for organizing large amounts of information.

Rosenfeld, L. , and P. Morville . (1998) Information Architecture for the World Wide Web. Cambridge: O'Reilly.
This book describes techniques for organizing, labeling, and indexing the information on a Web site for browsing and searching.

Selingo, J . (2000, August 3) A message to Web designers: If it ain't broke, don't fix it. New York Times E-Commerce Report. (http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/08/circuits/articles/03desi.html)
This article looks at the fact that many customers are resistant to change, wanting the power that familiarity and expertise affords. Web sites have had to make changes to accommodate this reality, including homepages that have both directories and search engines, homepages with many organized links instead of just a few, and a consistent structure behind the information.

Special Interest Group on Information Architecture: http://www.asis.org/AboutASIS/SIGEmailLists/ia.html
This e-mail list is devoted to practitioner, researcher, and student issues in information architecture.

Tufte, E . (1984) The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
Tufte's book is a classic on presenting complex information graphically, stressing simplicity, elegance, and efficiency.

Tufte, E . (1997) Visual Explanations. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
Another classic by Tufte, this book presents evidence relevant to cause and effect, for decision making and presentations.

Zaphiris, P. , B. Shneiderman , and K. Norman . (1999, June) Expandable Indexes versus Sequential Menus for Searching Hierarchies on the World Wide Web. (ftp://ftp.cs.umd.edu/pub/hcil/Reports-Abstracts-Bibliography/99-15html/99-15.html)
This study looks at the effectiveness of expanding menus for Web sites. Expanding menus show top-level hierarchies, revealing the next level of that hierarchy when the mouse is rolled over an item. The results indicate that reducing the depth of hierarchies improves browsing performance, lending more evidence to the theory that fewer clicks and fewer levels work better for organizing large amounts of information.

B2 BROWSABLE CONTENT

See references listed under MULTIPLE WAYS TO NAVIGATE (B1).

B3 HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION

See references listed under MULTIPLE WAYS TO NAVIGATE (B1).

B4 TASK-BASED ORGANIZATION

See references listed under MULTIPLE WAYS TO NAVIGATE (B1).

B5 ALPHABETICAL ORGANIZATION

See references listed under MULTIPLE WAYS TO NAVIGATE (B1).

B6 CHRONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION

See references listed under MULTIPLE WAYS TO NAVIGATE (B1).

B7 POPULARITY-BASED ORGANIZATION

See references listed under MULTIPLE WAYS TO NAVIGATE (B1).

B8 CATEGORY PAGES

See references listed under MULTIPLE WAYS TO NAVIGATE (B1).

B9 SITE ACCESSIBILITY

ASSISTIVETECH.NET: http://www.assistivetech.net
This Web site provides information about assistive technology devices and services. It features a database of assistive technology products, links to other public and private resources, and a convenient search function.

CAST, Bobby Worldwide: http://www.cast.org/bobby
Bobby is an online service that checks for the basic accessibility of Web sites. It does not ensure accessibility but does help pinpoint potential problems.

IBM Corporation, Accessibility Center. (No date) Web Accessibility. (http://www.ibm.com/able/accessweb.html)
IBM offers this checklist for making sure your Web site has basic accessibility built in. The site includes links to further reading.

Section 508: http://www.section508.gov
This U.S. government Web site provides a wide range of information about Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, which requires that electronic and information technology used by federal agencies be made accessible to people with disabilities.

Universal Usability Guide: http://www.universalusability.org
The ultimate goal of this group is to make technology “affordable, useful, and usable to the vast majority of the global population.” Its Web site has some material describing the salient issues, as well as references on long-term social, legal, and technological approaches to addressing the problems.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): http://www.w3.org
The W3C was organized under the mandate of “bringing the Web to its full potential.” Thus it has a special interest in making Web sites accessible to everyone. Check out the W3C's Web Accessibility Initiative at http://www.w3.org/wai. You will find tools, checklists, and guidelines at http://www.w3.org/tr/wcag (WCAG stands for Web Content Accessibility Guidelines).


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