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Lab 1.1 Exercises

1.1.1. Explore the Concept of Document Markup

a) Compose a sentence where punctuational markup (e.g., the use of commas) actually changes the meaning or interpretation.

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A1:

Answer: There can obviously be an unlimited number of answers to this question.

For example, these sentences are identical in content but have different meanings due to their punctuational markup:

“Tom,” says Tim, “is wrong.”

Tom says, “Tim is wrong.”

Although less obvious, HTML provides punctuation markup to a limited extent. For example, the <QUOTE></QUOTE> tag set would be used to change the appearance of the text indicating it would be a quote from someone. Without this markup, the text may be considered part of the document and not coming from a different source, for example. Note that in the context of HTML, this is also procedural markup because it tells the browser to change its behavior when displaying the text.

b) What appearance aspects of a book would be considered the result of descriptive markup?

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A2:

Answer: In the lab, we discussed the <H1></H1> tag set as being a “container,” because it contains certain text. In this case, it is also describing that text as a level 1 header. Books also have similar contents and therefore similar markup. Other aspects of a descriptive mark would be the subheading contents, illustration captions, and so forth. If you change the appearance associated with the description “Chapter Heading,” all of the chapter headings change.

As an interesting side note, Corel WordPerfect enables you to see and manipulate the markup directly. Therefore, you can much more easily see why certain text is being displayed they way it is (and not the way you want it).

1.1.2. Apply All Five Types of Document Markup to HTML

We have described HTML as containing components corresponding to all five types of document markup—punctuational, presentational, procedural, descriptive, and referential.


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