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Character entities can be represented as named entities or numeric entities. For example, to display the copyright symbol on a web page, you can enter © or #169;. The ampersand instructs the browser that a named entity is being used, and the number sign indicates that a numeric entity is being used. The named system is more user friendly but quite limited because there are only a limited number of named entities from which to choose. The numeric system, although hardly user friendly, is virtually unlimited because all characters are represented by numeric code points. For instance, using the Unicode character set, you could represent all 91,000 characters using nothing but numeric entities. Tables C.1 through C.3 include the more frequently used named and numerical entities. For the complete list of entities, go to http://www.w3c.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/entities.html.

Table C.1. ISO 8859-1 (Latin 1) Entities
Character Named Entity Numeric Entity Description
      nonbreaking space
¡ ¡ ¡ inverted exclamation mark
¢ ¢ ¢ cent sign
£ £ £ pound sterling sign
¤ ¤ ¤ general currency sign
¥ &yen ¥ yen sign
| ¦ ¦ broken (vertical) bar
§ § § section sign
¨ ¨ ¨ umlaut (dieresis)
© © © copyright sign
ª ª ª ordinal indicator, feminine
« « « angle quotation mark, left
¬ ¬ ¬ not sign
_ ­ ­ soft hyphen
­­® ® ® registered sign
¯ ¯ ¯ macron
° ° ° degree sign
± ± ± plus-or-minus sign
² ² ² superscript two
³ ³ ³ superscript three
´ ´ ´ acute accent
µ µ µ micro sign
¶ ¶ pilcrow (paragraph sign)
· · · middle dot
¸ ¸ ¸ cedilla
¹ ¹ ¹ superscript one
º º º ordinal indicator, masculine
» » » angle quotation mark, right
¼ ¼ ¼ fraction (one-quarter)
½ ½ ½ fraction (one-half)
¾ ¾ ¾ fraction (three-quarters)
¿ ¿ ¿ inverted question mark
À À À capital A, grave accent
Á Á Á capital A, acute accent
   capital A, circumflex accent
à à à capital A, tilde
Ä Ä Ä capital A, with dieresis or umlaut mark
Å Å Å capital A, ring
Æ &Aelig; Æ capital AE diphthong (ligature)
Ç Ç Ç capital C, cedilla
È È È capital E, grave accent
É É É capital E, acute accent
Ê Ê Ê capital E, circumflex accent
Ë Ë Ë capital E, dieresis or umlaut mark
Ì Ì Ì capital I, grave accent
Í Í Í capital I, acute accent
Î Î Î capital I, circumflex accent
Ï Ï Ï capital I, dieresis or umlaut mark
Ð Ð Ð capital Eth, Icelandic
Ñ Ñ Ñ capital N, tilde
Ò Ò Ò capital O, grave accent
Ó Ó Ó capital O, acute accent
Ô Ô Ô capital O, circumflex accent
Õ Õ Õ capital O, tilde
Ö Ö Ö capital O, dieresis or umlaut mark
× × × multiply sign
Ø Ø Ø capital O, slash
Ù Ù Ù capital U, grave accent
Ú Ú Ú capital U, acute accent
Û Û Û capital U, circumflex accent
Ü Ü Ü capital U, with dieresis or umlaut mark
Ý Ý Ý capital Y, acute accent
Þ Þ Þ capital THORN, Icelandic
ß ß ß small sharp s, German (sz ligature)
à à à small a, grave accent
á á á small a, acute accent
â â â small a, circumflex accent
ã ã ã small a, tilde
ä ä ä small a, with dieresis or umlaut mark
å å å small a, ring
æ æ æ small ae diphthong (ligature)
ç ç ç small c, cedilla
è è è small e, grave accent
é é é small e, acute accent
ê ê ê small e, circumflex accent
ë ë ë small e, with dieresis or umlaut mark
ì ì ì small i, grave accent
í í í small i, acute accent
î î î small i, circumflex accent
ï ï ï small i, with dieresis or umlaut mark
ð ð ð small eth, Icelandic
ñ ñ ñ small n, tilde
ò ò ò small o, grave accent
ó ó ó small o, acute accent
ô ô ô small o, circumflex accent
ô õ õ small o, tilde
ö ö ö small o, with dieresis or umlaut mark
÷ ÷ ÷ divide sign
ø ø ø small o, slash
ù ù ù small u, grave accent
ú ú ú small u, acute accent
û û û small u, circumflex accent
ü ü ü small u, with dieresis or umlaut mark
ý ý ý small y, acute accent
þ þ þ small thorn, Icelandic
ÿ ÿ ÿ small y, with dieresis or umlaut mark



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