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Summary

We have argued that security needs to be a property of the entire system. The essential problem of the security officer is that security has to be strong everywhere, because the attacker needs to find only one weak spot or lapse of operational attention. Security cannot be obtained by use of cryptographic pixie dust alone, although the lack of such technology can leave a system insecure. We advocate a five-step cycle of effort in security: creation of a security policy, addition of security mechanisms and technologies, careful design and operation of the computer and network environment, monitoring and auditing of the operational system, and, finally, evaluation of operations in order to refine the design, implementation, and operation of the system. The security design of the system must also incorporate principles of containment: security problems in one area of the system should be prevented from spreading to other areas.


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