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Chapter 1. The Birth of CSS > XHTML, CSS2 and CSS3

1.2. XHTML, CSS2 and CSS3

HTML development has not stood still in the meantime. The XHTML 1.0 standard, released in January 2000, succeeded the HTML 4.01 specification. The “X” in “XHTML” points to another Web coding standard called “XML,” short for “eXtended Markup Language.” XML is a way to embody and describe data elements, and is used in the construction of many Web-based databases. The new XHTML 1.0 specification (and the XHTML 1.1 recommendation, which is likely to become a formal specification soon) is a way of taking the descriptive data features of XML and combining them with the ease with which that data can be displayed using HTML. So the XHTML 1.0 specification merges aspects of XML into HTML — in fact XHTML is HTML redefined using XML expressions.

The XHTML 1.0 specification also requires Web authors to write their code to a more conforming style — in other words, no more “sloppy” coding — in order for an XHTML-compliant browser to understand it. Some of the new rules imposed by the XHTML include:


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