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24p

Film is normally shown at 24 frames per second, which doesn’t fit nicely into either the NTSC nor the PAL scheme of things, yet film is often shown on television, and there are now cameras shooting 24p (24 frames per second, progressively scanned) on tape.

NTSC transfers use a 3:2 pulldown or 2:3 pulldown process to convert 24 frames of film to 60 fields of video. The film is run at 23.98 fps, slowed one part in a thousand to match NTSC rates. The first film frame (the “A frame”) is recorded to two fields of video. The second (B) frame is recorded to three fields. The third, or C, frame is recorded to two fields again, but since the B frame introduced an extra field, the C frame is recorded to the second field of one frame and the first of another. The D frame is again recorded to three fields, for a total of 10 fields or 5 full video frames for the four original film frames.


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