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International Considerations > International Considerations - Pg. 163

A Primer on Intellectual Property Only federally-registered marks may use the ® symbol Utility Patent First to invent owns the patent; Must file within one year of first sale, public use, or printed disclosure; Patent application can be kept secret until issued; Costly registration, maintenance payments Worldwide Trade Secret 163 Trade secrets not protected in many countries, and poorly protected in others; Tip: Disclosure should be avoided where possible, and always under an NDA; Companies with offices abroad should conduct extensive employee education about existence and protection of trade secrets; Trade secret agreements may be unenforceable in some countries unless approved by government agencies; Some countries limit the royalty period and amount of royalties payable for trade secret-protected intellectual property Copyright Notice required; US copyrights recognized in many countries; Some countries do not allow a company to own a copyright; Moral rights in some countries give the author rights, even after selling the copyright, to control modification of the work; Many Latin American countries require the phrase "All Rights Reserved" in the legend. Other countries require use of the © symbol and not the word "Copyright" in the legend Trademark Paris Convention signatory countries give US trademark registrants six month "right of priority" to file the mark abroad; Rights arise only through registration;