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Participial Phrase

Present participles (verbals ending in -ing) and past participles (verbals ending in -ed or other irregular past participles) can be combined with complements and modifiers to create a participial phrase. These always act as adjectives. When they begin a sentence, they are set apart by a comma just like an introductory modifier. If they appear within the middle of a sentence, they are set apart with a pair of commas. For example, "Working around the clock, the workers repaired the airport runway in less than a week. The concrete, having been damaged by the crash landing of the airliner, needed to be replaced."


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