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Cloning: Pre-Photoshop

There really weren’t many options for copying parts of an image from one place to another prior to the introduction of image editors like Photoshop. The methods at the photographer’s disposal included manual retouching by a retouching artist, or physically duplicating and compositing portions of an image using a combination of knives and photographic tricks. None of these were techniques for the unskilled or faint-hearted.

Take something as simple as obliterating dust spots on an image. Most images taken with a non-digital camera have dust spots on them, no matter how carefully we try to keep our equipment and working environments clean. Even digital images can have “dust” in the form of artifacts caused by the quirks of the imaging sensor. Some things that look like dust can actually be tiny bright spots or reflections in the image. In all cases, the goal is to remove them.


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