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Review answers

1The retouching tools have the following similarities and differences:
  • Clone Stamp tool: As you paint, the tool duplicates the pixels from another area of the image. You set the sample area by holding down Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) and clicking the Clone Stamp tool.

  • Pattern Stamp tool (Photoshop only): As you paint, the tool lays down pixels based on a pattern that you designate. You can create this pattern from an area of the current image, from another image file, or from the default set provided with Adobe Photoshop CS.

  • Healing Brush tool (Photoshop only): This tool works like the Clone Stamp tool except that Photoshop calculates a blending of the sample pixels and the painting area, so that the restoration is especially subtle, yet effective.

  • Patch tool (Photoshop only): This tool works like the Healing Brush tool except that instead of using brush strokes to paint from a designated area, you drag a marquee around the area to be fixed and then drag the marquee over another area to mend the flawed area.

  • History Brush tool: This tool works like the Clone Stamp tool except that it paints pixels from a designated previous state or snapshot that you select in the History palette.

2A snapshot is a temporary record of a specific stage in your work session. The History palette saves only a limited number of actions. After that, each new action you perform removes the earliest item from the History palette list. However, if you select any action listed in the History palette and take a snapshot of that state, you can continue working from that action or another one. Later in your work session, you can revert to the state recorded by the snapshot by selecting it in the History palette, regardless of how many changes you’ve made in the meantime. You can save as many snapshots as you please.
3The Aligned option governs the relationship between the sample site and the brush. The difference between selecting or not selecting the Aligned option is significant only if you use multiple strokes as you retouch—that is, if you change the position of the pointer between brush strokes.
  • If Aligned is selected, then the sampling crosshairs maintain the same relative position to the brush as when you started the first brush stroke, so that an imaginary line between the brush and the crosshairs would maintain the same length and direction.

  • If Aligned is not selected, then the sampling crosshairs go back to the original sample site each time you start a new brush stroke, regardless of the distance or the angle between the brush and the source.

4The patterns that you create and save in the Photoshop Pattern Maker dialog box are saved with the application. Even if you close the current file, switch to another project, quit Photoshop, or reset your Photoshop preferences, that pattern will still be available in the pattern picker. (However, you can actively remove patterns, which deletes the pattern permanently.) Snapshots are deleted when you close the image file and cannot be recovered in later work sessions on that file. Snapshots are available only in the image file in which you created them.



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