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Chapter 4. PIXEL BASICS > Changing the canvas

Changing the canvas

The Canvas Size command changes the live, editable image area.

Note If you want to enlarge the canvas area manually, right on the image, use the Crop tool (see page 79). You can also use the Crop command to reduce the image size.

To change the canvas size:

1.
If the image has a Background, choose a Background color (see pages 165–169) .



2.
Choose Image menu > Canvas Size .



3.
Optional: Choose a different unit of measure from either pop-up menu. If you choose "columns," the current Column Size: Width in Edit menu > Preferences > Units &Rulers will be used as the increment.

4.
Enter new numbers in the Width and/or Height fields. Changing one dimension has no effect on the other dimension.

5.
Optional: To reposition the image on its new canvas, click an unoccupied Anchor square. The dark gray square represents the existing image area.

6.
Click OK. Any added areas will automatically be filled with the current Back ground color (unless the background is a layer with transparency, in which case added canvas areas will be transparent) .





A whole image can be cropped using the crop tool, the Crop command, or the Trim command. Photoshop 6 includes a number of new options for the Crop tool.


To crop an image using a marquee:

1.
Choose the Crop tool (C).

2.
Drag a marquee over the portion of the image that you want to keep .



3.
Do any of the following on the Crop options bar:



Check the Shield cropped area box if you want the area outside the crop marquee to be darkened by a cropping shield (it helps you see what's left). Click the Color swatch if you want to change the color for the darkened area, and choose an Opacity for the shield color.

If you're cropping a layer, click Cropped Area: Delete to have the cropped out areas be deleted or click Hide to have them be saved with the file and extend beyond the edge of the current image area. Use the Move tool to reposition any hidden layer pixels that extend off the edge. This isn't available for the Background.

For the Perspective option, see online Help.

4.
Do any of these optional steps:

To resize the marquee, drag any handle (double-arrow pointer). Shift-drag to preserve the marquee's proportions. Alt-drag/Option-drag to resize the marquee from its center.

To reposition the marquee, position the pointer inside the marquee, then drag.

To rotate the marquee, position the cursor outside it (curved arrow pointer), then drag in a circular direction. To change the axis point around which the marquee rotates, drag the circle away from the center of the marquee before rotating. (The crop marquee can't be rotated for an image in Bitmap mode.)

5.
Press Enter/Return .



or

Double-click inside the marquee. If you rotated the marquee, the rotated image will be squared off in the image window.

or

Click the on the options bar.

No snap?

Normally, the crop marquee will snap to the edge of the image. To override this snap function (let's say you want to crop slightly inside the edge of the image), start drawing the marquee, then hold down Ctrl-Shift-/ Cmd-Shift as you drag the marquee near the edge of the image.


Tip

To cancel the cropping process before accepting it, press Esc, or click the on the options bar.


Tip

To resharpen an image after cropping, apply the Unsharp Mask filter (see pages 74–75).


To specify dimensions and resolution as you crop an image:

1.
Choose the Crop tool (C).

2.
On the Crop options bar, enter values in the Width and/or Height fields .



or

Click Front Image to insert the current image's Width, Height, and Resolution values into those fields. Use this option if you want to crop one open image to the dimensions of another open image.



Note The crop marquee will match this width-to-height ratio.

3.
Optional: Modify the Resolution. If, after clicking Front Image, you raise the current resolution and then crop, the print size will decrease. If you lower the current resolution and then crop, the print size will increase. In both cases, the pixel count will remain unchanged.

To clear the Width, Height, and Resolution fields, click Clear.

4.
Drag a crop marquee on the image, then double-click inside the marquee or press Enter/Return.

To crop one image to fit exactly inside another image

Open both images, activate the destination image, choose the Crop tool, click Front Image on the Crop options bar, activate the image you want to crop, then draw a marquee. After cropping, Shift-drag-and-drop the layer or copy-and-paste the layer onto the destination image. The resolution will adjust automatically.


Cropping with a marquee that's larger than the image will effectively increase the image's canvas size.

To enlarge an image's canvas area using the Crop tool:

1.
Enlarge the image window so the work canvas (the gray area) around the image is showing.

2.
Choose the Crop tool (C).

3.
Draw a crop marquee within the image.

4.
Drag any of the handles of the marquee into the work canvas . If areas of the image originally extended outside the canvas border, those areas can now be included.





5.
Double-click inside the marquee or press Enter/Return. If there were no hidden pixels, the added canvas area will fill with the current Background color if the bottommost layer is the Background or with transparency if the bottommost layer is a layer.

The Crop command is simple and straightforward, but it's only useful if you don't need any of the options that the Crop tool provides. You start by drawing a selection marquee.

To crop an image using the Crop command:

1.
Choose the Rectangular Marquee tool (M).

2.
Draw a marquee over the part of the image you want to keep.

or

To control the size of the marquee, use the Style:Fixed Size or Constrained Ratio features on the Rectangular Marquee options bar, then click on the image.

3.
Choose Image menu > Crop.

To quickly trim away excess transparent or color areas from around an image, use the Trim command.


To crop an image using the Trim command:

1.
Choose Image menu > Trim.

2.
Choose a Based On option :



Transparent Pixels to trim away any extra transparency at the edges of the image, while preserving all image pixels.

Top Left Pixel Color to remove any border areas that match the color of the upper left pixel from the image.

Bottom Right Pixel Color to remove any border areas that match the color of the lower right pixel from the image.

3.
Choose which areas of the image you want to be trimmed: Top, Bottom, Left, or Right.

4.
Click OK.

Note The Rotate Canvas > Flip Horizontal and Flip Vertical commands, discussed below, flip all the layers in an image. If you want to flip one layer at a time, use Edit menu > Transform > Flip Horizontal or Flip Vertical instead.

To flip an image:

To flip the image left to right, choose Image menu > Rotate Canvas > Flip Horizontal .





or

To flip the image upside-down to produce a mirror image, choose Image menu > Rotate Canvas > Flip Vertical .



Note The Rotate Canvas commands rotate all the layers in an image. To rotate one layer at a time, use a rotate command from the Edit menu > Transform submenu.

To rotate an image by a preset amount:

Choose Image Menu > Rotate Canvas > 180°, 90° CW (clockwise), or 90° CCW (counterclockwise).

To rotate an image by specifying a number:

1.
Choose Image Menu > Rotate Canvas > Arbitrary.

2.
Enter a number between -359.99° and 359.99° in the Angle field .



Tip

To straighten out a crooked scan, measure the angle using the Measure tool, then enter that angle.

3.
Click °CW (clockwise) or °CCW (counterclockwise)

4.
Click OK .



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