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IP Addressing

After you know how many physical segments or rings, the maximum number of hosts per segment, and the location of default gateways, it's time to decide on an IP addressing scheme. To do that, you need to understand what is possible. In TCP/IP, each host is identified by a unique 32-bit IP address. When used with a subnet mask, each address is divided into a two-part address, consisting of a network ID and a host ID. The network ID identifies the particular subnet where the workstation or server can be found, just as the street name in your address identifies the particular street where you live. The host ID identifies an individual workstation or server on the subnet, just as your house number identifies your house on the street. Houses on other streets may have the same house number, but not the same street address. The subnet mask is used to mask certain portions of the IP address. The 0 bits mask out the host ID portion of the address, leaving just the Network ID. The 1 bits are used in a similar fashion to mask out the Network ID, leaving just a host ID. The following is a typical 32-bit IP address, subnet mask, and the resulting network and host IDs.

  11011000 10100000 01100100 10010011
  216.160.100.147
  IP Address
  11111111 11111111 11111111 11100000
  255.255.255.224
  Subnet Mask
  11011000 10100000 01100100 10000000
  216.160.100.128
  Network ID
  00000000 00000000 00000000 00010011
  0. 0. 0. 19
  Host ID


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