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Calculator \windows\system32\calc.exe

Numerical scientific and nonscientific calculator.

To Open

Start Programs Accessories Calculator

Command Prompt calc


By default, the Calculator starts in Standard mode, containing only the numeric keypad and some basic functions (add, subtract, invert, square root, etc.). Select Scientific from the View menu to use the calculator in Scientific mode, useful for more advanced functions, such as logarithmic, logical, trigonomic, and base functions (see Figure 4-14). Each time you subsequently open the calculator, it will appear in the previously used mode.

Figure 4-14. The scientific view of the Calculator provides access to many more functions than the standard view

Entering data and performing calculations

Data can be entered by clicking the buttons or by pressing keys on the keyboard. All keys have keyboard equivalents; key mappings that are not quite obvious (such as log) are documented in Table 4-2. Note that many of the functions below are only available in Scientific mode.

Table 4-2. Calculations and keyboard equivalents
Calc button Keyboard key Action
C Esc Clear all calculations
CE Del Clear the last entry
Back Backspace Clear the last digit
MR Ctrl-R Display the number stored in memory
MS Ctrl-M Store the current value in memory
M+ Ctrl-P Add the current value to the number stored in memory
MC Ctrl-L Clear the memory
+/- F9 Change the sign (negative)

When in Hex mode, hexadecimal values A-F can be entered from the keyboard or by using the A-F buttons on the calculator. Number systems and keyboard equivalents can be seen in Table 4-3. Tables Table 4-4 and Table 4-5 show binary mode keyboard equivalents and bitwise (logic) functions and keyboard equivalents, respectively.

Table 4-3. Number systems and keyboard equivalents
Calc Button Keyboard key Action
Hex F5 Hexadecimal (base 16)
Dec F6 Decimal (base 10)
Oct F7 Octal (base 8)
Bin F8 Binary (base 2)

Table 4-4. Binary mode keyboard equivalents
Calc button Keyboard key Action
Qword F12 64-bit value
Dword F2 32-bit value
Word F3 16-bit value (low order bit)
Byte F4 8-bit value (low order bit)

Table 4-5. Bitwise (logic) functions and keyboard equivalents
Calc Button Keyboard key Action
Mod % Modulus
And & Bitwise AND
Or | Bitwise OR
Xor ^ Bitwise exclusive OR
Lsh < Left shift (right shift via Inv + Lsh or >)
Not ~ Bitwise inverse
Int ; Integer (remove the decimal portion)

When in Decimal mode, the Deg, Rad, and Grad radio buttons switch between degrees, radians, and gradients (see Table 4-6).

Table 4-6. Decimal mode keyboard equivalents
Calc button Keyboard key Action
Deg F2 Calculate trigonomic functions in degrees
Rad F3 Calculate trigonomic functions in radians
Grad F4 Calculate trigonomic functions in grads

Statistical functions

To perform a statistical calculation, start by entering the first data, then click Sta to open the Statistics Box, click Dat to display the data in the Statistics Box, and then continue entering the data, clicking Dat after each entry. When you’ve finished entering all the numbers, click the statistical button you want to use (Ave, Sum, or S). The buttons available in the Statistics Box are listed in Table 4-7.

Table 4-7. Statistics Box buttons
Calc button Action
RET Returns the focus to the calculator
LOAD Displays the selected number in the Statistics Box in the Calculator display area
CD Clears the selected number (data)
CAD Clears all numbers (data) in the Statistics Box

Scientific calculation

Scientific calculations buttons and keyboard equivalents are shown in Table 4-8.

Table 4-8. Scientific calculations buttons and keyboard equivalents
Calc button Keyboard key Action
Inv i Sets the inverse function for sin, cos, tan, Pl, xy, x 2, x 3, Ln, log, sum, and s.
Hyp h Sets the hyperbolic function for sin, cos, and tan.
F-E v Turns scientific notation on and off. Can only be used with decimal numbers. Numbers larger than 1015 are always displayed with exponents.
( ) ( ) Starts and ends a new level of parentheses. The maximum number of nested parentheses is 25. The current number of levels appears in the box above the ) button.
dms m If the displayed number is in degrees, convert to degree-minute-second format. Use Inv + dms to reverse the operation.
Exp x The next digit(s) entered constitute the exponent. The exponent cannot be larger than 289. Decimal only.
Ln n Natural (base e) logarithm. Inv + Ln calculates e raised to the nth power, where n is the current number.
sin s Sine of the displayed number. Inv + sin gives arc sine. Hyp + sin gives hyperbolic sine. Inv + Hyp + sin gives arc hyperbolic sine.
x^y y x to the yth power. Inv + x^y calculates the yth root of x.
Log l The common (base 10) logarithm. Inv + log yields 10 to the xth power, where x is the displayed number.
Cos o Cosine of the displayed number. Inv + cosin gives arc cosine. Hyp + cosin gives hyperbolic cosine. Inv + Hyp + cosin gives arc hyperbolic cosine.
x^3 # Cubes the displayed number. Inv + x^3 gives the cube root.
n! ! Factorial of the displayed number.
tan t Tangent of the displayed number. Inv + tan gives arc tan. Hyp + tan gives hyperbolic tan. Inv + Hyp + tan gives arc hyperbolic tan.
x^2 @ Squares the displayed number. Inv + x^2 gives the square root.
l/x r Reciprocal of displayed number.
Pi p The value of pi (3.1415...). Inv + Pi gives 2 pi.


  • If you convert a fractional decimal number to another number system, only the integer part will be used.

  • Those serious about calculators will probably notice that there is no Reverse Polish Notation (RPN) mode. Fortunately, there are literally dozens of freely available alternatives on the Web (try the Aepryus Calculator from http://www.aepryus.com/ or the Trig+ PC Calculator from http://www.web-ee.com/). Also see “Powertoy Calc,” part of Microsoft’s Power Toys package described in Appendix D.

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