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Chapter 19. Shell Overview > Common Features

19.3. Common Features

Table 19-1 is a sampling of features that are common to bash and tcsh.

Table 19-1. Common shell features
Symbol/command Meaning/action
> Redirect output
>> Append to file
< Redirect input
<< Here document (redirect input)
| Pipe output
& Run process in background
; Separate commands on same line
* Match any character(s) in filename
? Match single character in filename
!n Repeat command number n
[ ] Match any characters enclosed
( ) Execute in subshell
`` Substitute output of enclosed command
" " Partial quote (allows variable and command expansion)
' ` Full quote (no expansion)
\ Quote following character
$var Use value for variable
$$ Process ID
$0 Command name
$n nth argument (0<n_9)
$* All arguments as simple words
# Begin comment
Tab Complete current word
bg Background execution
break Break from loop statements
cd Change directory
continue Resume a program loop
echo Display output
eval Evaluate arguments
exec Execute a new shell
fg Foreground execution
jobs Show active jobs
kill Terminate running jobs
newgrp Change to a new group
shift Shift positional parameters
stop Suspend a background job
suspend Suspend a foreground job (such as a shell created by su)
time Time a command
umask Set default file permissions for new files
unset Erase variable or function definitions
wait Wait for a background job to finish



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