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Preface > Conventions Used in This Book

Conventions Used in This Book

The following typographical conventions are used in this book:

Constant width

Indicates command-line computer output, code examples, text to type, and paths to Registry keys.

Constant width italic

Indicates user-defined elements within constant-width text (such as filenames or command-line parameters). For example, Chapter 8 discusses a file encryption utility, cipher.exe, which has a variety of command-line options. A particular solution might instruct you to type:

cipher /r:filename

the italic portion of the above code, filename, signifies the element you'll need to replace with whatever is applicable to your system or needs. The rest—the non-italicized portion — should be typed exactly as shown.


Identifies captions, menus, buttons, checkboxes, tabs, keyboard keys, and other interface elements. By bolding interface elements, it makes it easy to distinguish them from the rest of the text. For example, turn on the Force Windows to crash option.

Window/dialog titles and icon captions are typically not bolded, but some objects (such as Control Panel contents) can appear as icons or menu items, and therefore typically appear bolded.


Introduces new terms, indicates web site URLs, and sets apart file and folder names.

Italic is also used to highlight chapter titles and, in some instances, to visually separate the topic of a list.

"Quotation marks"

Are used sparingly in this book, and are typically used to set apart topic headings and emphasize new concepts. Note that if you see quotation marks around something you're supposed to type, you should type the quotation marks as well (unless otherwise specified).

This is an example of a tip, often used to highlight a particularly useful hint or time-saving shortcut. Tips often point to related information elsewhere in the book.

This is an example of a warning, which alerts to a potential pitfall of the solution or application being discussed. Warnings can also refer to a procedure that might be dangerous if not carried out in a specific way.

Path Notation

Occasionally, the following shorthand path notation is used to show you how to reach a given user-interface element or option. The path notation is relative to a well-known location. For example, the following path:

Control Panel Date and Time Internet Time tab

means "Open the Control Panel, then open Date and Time, and then choose the Internet Time tab."

Keyboard shortcuts

When keyboard shortcuts are shown, a hyphen (such as Ctrl-Alt-Del) means that the keys must be held down simultaneously.

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