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Preface > Conventions Used in This Book

Conventions Used in This Book

The following typographical conventions are used in this book:

Constant width

Indicates command-line computer output, code examples, and Registry keys.

Constant width italic

Indicates variables in examples and in Registry keys. It is also used to indicate variables or user-defined elements within italic text (such as path names or filenames). For example, in the path \Windows\username, replace username with your name.

Constant width bold

Indicates user input in examples.


Identifies captions, menus, buttons, checkboxes, tabs, keyboard keys, and other interface elements, making the text easier to read.


Introduces new terms and indicates URLs, variables in text, user-defined files and directories, commands, file extensions, filenames, directory or folder names, and UNC pathnames.

Italic is also used to highlight chapter titles and, in some instances, to visually separate the topic of a list.

"Quotation marks"

Are included only when necessary; if you see quotation marks around something to type, for example, it means that you should type them as well (unless otherwise specified).

This is an example of a note, which signifies valuable and timesaving information.

This is an example of a warning, which alerts to a potential pitfall in the program. Warnings can also refer to a procedure that might be dangerous if not carried out in a specific way.

Path Notation

We use a shorthand path notation to show you how to reach a given Word or Windows user-interface element or option. The path notation is relative to a well-known location. For example, the following path:

Start Programs Accessories

means "Open the Start Menu, then choose Programs, then choose Accessories."

Keyboard Shortcuts

When keyboard shortcuts are shown, a hyphen (such as Ctrl-Alt-Del) means that the keys must be held down simultaneously, and a plus (such as Alt+F+O) means that the keys should be pressed sequentially.

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