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Chapter 4. Networking > Sharing Files & Applications

Sharing Files & Applications

To use AppleTalk to share files and applications with other network users, you must set options in two System Preferences panes (Figure 1):

Figure 1. You configure sharing with two System Preferences panes: Network and Sharing.


  • Network allows you to enable AppleTalk and choose your AppleTalk zone and configuration.

  • Sharing allows you to name your computer, enable types of sharing and access, and control how other users can run applications on your computer.

This part of the chapter explains how to set up sharing via an AppleTalk Ethernet connection. It also explains how to share files and applications once the configuration is complete.

Tips

  • Although file and application sharing is possible with other protocols and types of connections, it is impossible for me to cover all configuration options here. If you’re using a different type of network and don’t have instructions for using it with Mac OS X, read through the instructions here. Much of what you read may apply to your setup.

  • If your computer is on a large network, consult the system administrator before changing any network configuration options.


To set AppleTalk Network preferences

1.
Choose Apple > System Preferences (Figure 2), or click the System Preferences icon in the Dock (Figure 3).

Figure 2. Open the System Preferences window by choosing System Preferences from the Apple menu...


Figure 3. ...or by clicking the System Preferences icon in the Dock.


2.
In the System Preferences window that appears (Figure 1), click the Network icon in the toolbar or in the Internet & Network row.

3.
In the Network preferences pane that appears, choose an Ethernet option (such as Built-in Ethernet) from the Show menu (Figure 4).

Figure 4. Choose an Ethernet option from the Show pop-up menu.


4.
If necessary, click the AppleTalk tab to display its options (Figure 5).

Figure 5. The AppleTalk tab of the Network preferences pane.


5.
Turn on the Make AppleTalk Active check box.

6.
If necessary, choose a zone from the AppleTalk Zone pop-up menu.

7.
Choose an option from the Configure pop-up menu:

  • Automatically automatically configures your computer with the correct network identification information.

  • Manually displays Node ID and Network ID boxes for you to enter network identification information (Figure 6).

    Figure 6. If you choose Manually, you have to enter correct network identification information.

8.
Click Apply Now.

Tips

  • AppleTalk zones are normally only present in large networks.

  • In step 7, if you choose Manually, you must enter the correct information for AppleTalk to work.


To set the computer’s identity

1.
Choose Apple > System Preferences (Figure 2), or click the System Preferences icon in the Dock (Figure 3).

2.
In the System Preferences window that appears (Figure 1), click the Sharing icon in the Internet & Network row to display the Sharing preferences pane (Figure 7).

Figure 7. The Services tab of the Sharing preferences pane.


3.
To set the name to identify your computer on an AppleTalk network, enter a name in the Computer Name box.

4.
To set the name to identify your computer to other Rendezvous-compatible devices, enter a name in the Rendezvous Name box.

5.
To change the network or TCP/IP address for your computer, click the Edit button. Then click the TCP/IP tab in the Network preferences pane that appears, make desired changes to the computer’s IP address, and click Apply Now to save them.

Tip

  • Setting a computer’s IP address is covered in Mac OS X 10.2: Visual QuickStart Guide.


To enable sharing services

1.
Choose Apple > System Preferences (Figure 2), or click the System Preferences icon in the Dock (Figure 3).

2.
In the System Preferences window that appears (Figure 1), click the Sharing icon in the Internet & Network row to display the Sharing preferences pane.

3.
If necessary, click the Services tab to display its options (Figure 8).

Figure 8. If you enable Remote Apple Events, you can set options that enable you to accept events from Mac OS 9 computers.


4.
Turn on the check box beside each sharing service you want to enable:

  • Personal File Sharing enables Macintosh users to access Public folders on your computer.

  • Windows File Sharing enables Windows users to access shared folders using SMB/CIFS, a Windows file sharing technology.

  • Personal Web Sharing enables others to view Web pages in your Sites folder.

  • Remote Login enables others to access your computer using Secure Shell (SSH) client software, such as Terminal.

  • FTP Access enables others to exchange files with your computer using FTP client software.

  • Remote Apple Events enables applications on other Mac OS X computers to send Apple Events to your computer. If you enable this option (Figure 8), you can also turn on the Allow events from Mac OS 9 check box. Doing so displays a password dialog sheet like the one in Figure 9; enter the same password twice and click OK to enable this option.

    Figure 9. Use this dialog sheet to set up a password that Mac OS 9 users must enter to send Apple events to your computer.

  • Printer Sharing enables others to use printers connected to your computer.

Tips

  • In step 4, turning on the check box beside an item is the same as selecting the item and clicking the Start button that appears beside it. Likewise, turning off an item’s check box is the same as selecting it and clicking the Stop button.

  • To enable a Windows user to access files on your computer, you must enable Windows log in for his account. I explain how in Chapter 5.

  • With Personal Web Sharing enabled, the contents of the Sites folder within your home folder are published as Personal Web Sharing Web sites. To access a user’s Web site, use the following URL: http://IPaddress/~username/ where IPaddress is the IP address or domain name of the computer and username is the name of the user on that computer.

  • When a user accesses your computer via Remote Login, he accesses the Unix shell underlying Mac OS X.


To disable sharing services

1.
Choose Apple > System Preferences (Figure 2), or click the System Preferences icon in the Dock (Figure 3).

2.
In the System Preferences window that appears (Figure 1), click the Sharing icon in the Internet & Network row to display the Sharing preferences pane.

3.
If necessary, click the Services tab to display its options (Figure 8).

4.
Turn off the check box beside the sharing service you want to disable.

5.
If a dialog sheet like the one in Figure 10 appears, enter the number of minutes in which sharing will be disabled in the top box and click OK.

Figure 10. You can use a dialog like this to specify how long before sharing shuts down and include a personal message.


Tips

  • In step 5, the value you enter determines how long before sharing is disabled. If you’re in a hurry, enter a smaller value than the default value, which is 10.

  • When you disable file sharing, a dialog like the one in Figure 11 appears on the screen of each connected user, warning them that the server (your computer) will be shutting down.

    Figure 11. Here’s what a connected user sees when you shut down file sharing, using the settings shown in Figure 10.

  • In step 5, you can also enter a message in the bottom box to send to connected users. Figures 10 and 11 show examples.


To set firewall options

1.
Choose Apple > System Preferences (Figure 2), or click the System Preferences icon in the Dock (Figure 3).

2.
In the System Preferences window that appears (Figure 1), click the Sharing icon in the Internet & Network row to display the Sharing preferences pane.

3.
If necessary, click the Firewall tab to display its options (Figure 12).

Figure 12. The Firewall tab of the Sharing preferences pane enables you to configure and enable Mac OS X’s built-in firewall.


4.
Turn on the check box beside each type of sharing you want to exclude from firewall protection. The options are the same as those discussed in the section titled “To enable sharing services” earlier in this chapter.

5.
To start firewall protection, click Start.

or

To stop firewall protection, click Stop. (The Stop button appears in place of the Start button when the firewall is enabled.)

Tips

  • A firewall is security software that prevents incoming network access to your computer.

  • In step 4, each type of sharing corresponds to one or more network ports on your computer.

  • To add a port to the Description (Ports) list, click the New button. In the dialog that appears (Figure 13), choose an option from the Port Name pop-up menu (Figure 14), enter a port number in the box beneath it, and click OK. The port is added to the list.

    Figure 13. Use a dialog like this to add a port to the Firewall tab’s list.

    Figure 14. Mac OS X comes preconfigured with many commonly used ports.

  • Remember, only those items that are not checked in the Allow list will be protected by the firewall.


To share an Internet connection with other network users

1.
Choose Apple > System Preferences (Figure 2), or click the System Preferences icon in the Dock (Figure 3).

2.
In the System Preferences window that appears (Figure 1), click the Sharing icon in the Internet & Network row to display the Sharing preferences pane.

3.
If necessary, click the Internet tab to display its options. How the tab appears varies depending on the type of connection you have to the Internet. Figures 15 and 16 show the options for Modem and Built-in Ethernet respectively.

4.
To share a modem connection, click the Start button (Figure 15).

Figure 15. The Internet tab of the Sharing preferences pane with a modem connection to the Internet...


or

To share a built-in Ethernet connection, turn on the check box labeled Share the connection with other computers on Built-in Ethernet (Figure 16). A Caution dialog like the one in Figure 17 may appear. If you’re sure you want to share the connection, click OK. Then click Start.

Figure 16. ...and with a built-in Ethernet connection to the Internet.


Figure 17. A dialog like this may appear if you try to share a built-in Ethernet connection.


Tips

  • When you share an Internet connection, the total connection speed is divided among each active connection. So, for example, if two computers are actively sharing a 128Kbps ISDN connection with you, the speed of each connection will only be about 42 Kbps.

  • To stop sharing an Internet connection with other network users, follow steps 1 through 3 above, then click the Stop button.


To lock Network or Sharing preferences

Click the lock button at the bottom of the Network (Figure 5) or Sharing (Figures 7, 12, and 15) preferences pane.

The window’s contents turn gray (Figure 18), indicating that they cannot be changed, and the lock button’s icon looks closed or locked (Figure 19).

Figure 18. When a preference pane is locked, its contents turn gray.


Figure 19. The lock looks locked when you can’t make changes.


To unlock Network or Sharing preferences

1.
Click the locked lock button at the bottom of the Network or Sharing preferences pane (Figure 19).

2.
A dialog like the one in Figure 20 appears. Enter the name and password for an administrative user and click OK.

Figure 20. You must enter an administrator name and password to unlock the preferences pane.


The locked icon changes so it looks open (unlocked) and the options in the preferences pane can be changed.

Tip

  • If you’re in charge of administering a computer used by other people, it’s a good idea to lock the network settings after you set them. This can prevent unauthorized or accidental changes by other users.


To connect to another computer for file sharing

1.
In the Finder, choose Go > Connect to Server (Figure 21), or press .

Figure 21. Choose Connect to Server from the Go menu.


2.
In the Connect to Server dialog that appears, select the server you want to connect to (Figure 22).

Figure 22. Select one of the computers accessible on your network.


3.
Click Connect.

4.
A login dialog like the one in Figure 23 appears.

  • If you are registered as a user on the other computer, select the Registered User radio button (Figure 23) and enter your user name and password.

    Figure 23. Use this dialog to enter login information.

  • If you are not registered as a user on the other computer and it allows Guest access, select the Guest radio button.

5.
Click Connect.

6.
If necessary, wait while the computer authenticates your user name and password.

7.
A dialog like the one in Figure 24 appears next. Select the volumes you want to mount.

Figure 24. Select the volume or folder you want to access.


8.
Click OK.

9.
An icon for the mounted volume appears on your desktop and a Volumes window appears (Figure 25). Open the volume’s icon to access its contents.

Figure 25. An icon for the mounted volume appears on your desktop, along with the Volumes window.


Tips

  • Some type of sharing service must be enabled on a computer for it to appear in the Connect to Server dialog (Figure 22). I explain how to enable sharing services earlier in this chapter.

  • If you know the address of the computer you want to connect to, you can enter it in the Address edit box of the Connect to Server dialog (Figure 22) in step 2.

  • After step 2, you can click the Add to Favorites button to add the selected computer to the At pop-up menu (Figure 26) at the top of the Connect to Server dialog.

    Figure 26. Clicking the Add to Favorites button when a server is selected adds the server’s address to the At pop-up menu, making it easy to access that server in the future.

  • In step 7, you can hold down and click volume names to select more than one volume.

  • The list of volumes that appears in step 7 depends on the disks mounted on the computer you are accessing and your access privileges. In Figure 24, the dialog lists the computer’s hard disk (Do More) and the user’s Home folder (mlanger).

  • The access privileges you have for network volumes varies depending on the privileges set for that volume or folder. I tell you more about privileges later in this chapter.


To set login options as a registered user

1.
Follow steps 1 through 4 in the section titled “To connect to another computer for file sharing.” Make sure you select the Registered User radio button and enter your login information in step 4.

2.
Click the Options button (Figure 23) to display login options (Figure 27).

Figure 27. Clicking the Options button in the login window (Figure23) displays login options.


3.
Toggle check boxes in the Preferences area as desired and click the Save Preferences button:

  • Add Password to Keychain adds your login information to your keychain. I tell you about the keychain feature in Chapter 5.

  • Allow Clear Text Password allows your password to be displayed as you enter it, rather than shown as bullets, if it is configured to show that way.

  • Warn when sending password in Clear Text warns you before displaying your password as you enter it.

  • Allow Secure Connections using SSH enables you to establish a secure connection when using a Secure Shell client such as Terminal.

4.
To change your password on the server, click the Change Password button. A dialog like the one in Figure 28 appears. Enter your current password in the Old Password box, then enter the new password in each of the other boxes. Click OK to return to the login window (Figure 23).

Figure 28. Use this dialog to change your password on the networked computer.


or

Click OK to dismiss the login options dialog (Figure 27) and return to the login window (Figure 23).

5.
Follow the remaining steps in the section titled “To connect to another computer for file sharing” to complete the login process.

Tip

  • Once you’ve added your server password to your keychain, you will no longer be prompted to enter a password when you connect to that server.


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