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Chapter 8. Building a Worksheet with Excel > Using Absolute Cell References

Using Absolute Cell References

When you want a formula to consistently refer to a particular cell, even if you copy or move the formula elsewhere on the worksheet, you need to use an absolute cell reference. An absolute cell reference is a cell address that contains a dollar sign ($) in the row or column coordinate, or both. When you enter a cell reference in a formula, Excel assumes it is a relative reference unless you change it to an absolute reference. If you want part of a formula to remain a relative reference, remove the dollar sign that appears before the column letter or row number.

Use an Absolute Reference

Click a cell where you want to enter a formula.

Type = (an equal sign) to begin the formula.

Select a cell, and then type an arithmetic operator (+, -, *, or /).

Select another cell, and then press the F4 key to make that cell reference absolute.

If necessary, continue entering the formula.

Click the Enter button on the formula bar, or press Enter.


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