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### Math and Trigonometry Functions Overview

Math and Trigonometry functions in Excel can be used to perform calculations as standalone functions or combined to create complex formulas. Trigonometry is simply the study of how sides and angles of a triangle relate to each other. So, this chapter when referring to trig functions is all about triangles. Yep, it’s that simple. And, some quick comments about sine and cosine. Sine is the ratio of the height to the hypotenuse and cosine is the ratio of the base to the hypotenuse. Where the hypotenuse is the longest leg of a right triangle. Sine and cosine are referred to frequently within the chapter. Table 14.1 functions presented in bold are included with examples in this chapter.

##### Table 14.1. Math and Trigonometry Functions
FunctionSyntaxDescription
ABS=ABS(number)Returns the absolute value of a number.
ACOS=ACOS(number)Returns the arccosine or inverse cosine of a number. The arccosine is the angle whose cosine is a number.
ACOSH=ACOSH(number)Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number.
ASIN=ASIN(number)Returns the arcsine, or inverse sine of a number.
ASINH=ASINH(number)Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number.
ATAN=ATAN(number)Returns the arctangent, or inverse tangent of a number.
ATAN2=ATAN2(x_num,y_num)Returns the arctangent, or inverse tangent of the specified x and y coordinates.
ATANH=ATANH(number)Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number between –1 and 1.
CEILING=CEILING(number,significance)Returns number rounded up, away from zero, to the nearest multiple you specify.
COMBIN=COMBIN(number,number_chosen)Returns the total number of combinations for a given number of items.
COS=COS(number)Returns the cosine of a given angle.
COSH=COSH(number)Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number.
COUNTIF=COUNTIF(range,criteria)Counts the number of cells in a specified range that meet criteria you specify.
EVEN=EVEN(number)Returns a number rounded up to the nearest even integer.
EXP=EXP(number)Returns E (which equals the base logarithm constant of 2.71828182845904) raised to the power of a number you specify.
FACT=FACT(number)Returns the factorial of a number.
FACTDOUBLE=FACTDOUBLE(number)Returns the double factorial of a number.
FLOOR=FLOOR(number,significance)Rounds number down, toward zero, to the nearest multiple you specify.
GCD=GCD(number1,number2,...)Returns the greatest common divisor of two or more integers.
INT=INT(number)Rounds number down to the nearest integer (no decimals).
LCM=LCM(number1,number2,...)Returns the least common multiple of integers.
LN=LN(number)Returns the natural logarithm of a number.
LOG=LOG(number,base)Returns the logarithm of a number to the base you specify.
LOG10=LOG10(number)Returns the base 10 logarithm of a number.
MDETERM=MDETERM(array)Returns the matrix determinant of an array.
MINVERSE=MINVERSE(array)Returns the inverse matrix for the matrix stored in an array.
MMULT=MMULT(array1,array2)Returns the matrix product of two arrays.
MOD=MOD(number,divisor)Returns the remainder after number is divided by divisor.
MODE=MODE(Number1,Number2,...)Returns the value that appears the most times within a list or range of cell.
MROUND=MROUND(number,multiple)Returns number rounded to the desired multiple.
MULTINOMIAL=MULTINOMIAL(number1,number2,...)Returns the ratio of the factorial of a sum of values to the product of factorials.
ODD=ODD(number)Returns number rounded to the nearest odd integer.
PERMUT=PERMUT(number,number_chosen)Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects that can be selected from number objects.
PI=PI() Returns the number 3.14159265358979, the mathematical constant pi, accurate to 15 digits. There are no arguments associated with this function.
POWER=POWER(number,power)Returns the result of a number raised to a power.
PRODUCT=PRODUCT(number1,number2,...)Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the product.
QUOTIENT=QUOTIENT(numerator,denominator)Returns the integer portion of a division, discarding the remainder.
RAND=RAND()Returns an evenly distributed number greater than or equal to 0 and less than 1. There are no arguments associated with this function.
RANDBETWEEN=RANDBETWEEN(bottom,top)Returns a random number between the qnumbers you specify.
ROMAN=ROMAN(number,form)Converts an Arabic numeral to Roman, as text.
ROUND=ROUND(number,num_digits)Rounds a number to a specified number of digits.
ROUNDDOWN=ROUNDDOWN(number,num_digits)Rounds a number down toward 0.
ROUNDUP=ROUNDUP(number,num_digits)Rounds a number up, away from 0.
SERIESSUM=SERIESSUM(x,n,m,coefficients)Returns the sum of a power series based on the mathematical SERIES formula, which can be found in Excel’s SERIESSUM help topic.
SIGN=SIGN(number)Determines the sign of a number, returning a 1 for positive, a 0 for zero, and a –1 for negative.
SIN=SIN(number)Returns the sine of the given angle.
SINH=SINH(number)Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number.
SQRT=SQRT(number)Returns the positive square root of a number.
SQRTPI=SQRTPI(number)Returns the square root of (number*pi).
SUBTOTAL=SUBTOTAL(function_num,ref1,ref2,...)Calculates a subtotal from a range based on 11 different functions: AVERAGE, COUNT, COUNTA, MAX, MIN, PRODUCT STDEV, STDEVP, SUM, VAR, and VARP.
SUM=Sum(number1,number2,...)Adds the numbers in a range or multiple ranges of cells.
SUMIF=SUMIF(range,criteria,sum_range)Adds the numbers in a range based on criteria you specify.
SUMPRODUCT=SUMPRODUCT(array1,array2,array3,...)Multiplies corresponding components in the given arrays, and returns the sum of those products.
SUMSQ=SUMSQ(number1,number2,...)Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments.
SUMX2MY2=SUMX2MY2(array_x,array_y)Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.
SUMX2PY2=SUMX2PY2(array_x,array_y)Returns the sum of the sum of squares in corresponding values in two arrays.
SUMXMY2=SUMXMY2(array_x,array_y)Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays
TAN=TAN(number)Returns the tangent of the given angle.
TANH=TANH(number)Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number.
TRUNC=TRUNC(number,num_digits)Truncates number to an integer, removing the fractional part of the number. Unlike the INT |function, TRUNC does not round down.

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