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Chapter 6. Function Fundamentals > Relative Versus Absolute Referencing

Relative Versus Absolute Referencing

When you specify a cell or range of cells in a worksheet in a formula, it is called cell or range referencing. When you want the reference to adjust to its new location when you copy the formula, it is called relative referencing. When you anchor or lock the row or column reference to a cell or range in a formula so that it does not change when copied, that is called absolute referencing. For example, if you write a formula that you need to drag horizontally or vertically, you might need to anchor one or more of the reference cells or ranges for the correct results. A cell becomes anchored by applying the dollar sign before the column and/or row.

Note the result of the following:


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