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### Math and Trig Functions

Excel's math and trigonometric functions perform a wide variety of calculations. The functions can compute sines, cosines, factorials, exponents, logs, and other such functions. Table B.7 details these functions.

##### Table B.7. Math and Trig Functions in Excel
Function SyntaxReturns
=ABS(number)Absolute (positive) value of a number, omitting any information to the right of the decimal place
=ACOS(number)Arccosine of a number in radians
=ACOSH(number)Inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number
=ASIN(number)Arcsine of a number in radians
=ASINH(number)Inverse hyperbolic sine of a number
=ATAN(number)Arctangent of a number in radians
=ATAN2(x_number,y_number)Arctangent of a coordinate in radians
=ATANH(number)Inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number
=CEILING(number,significance)Number rounded up to the nearest integer or multiple of specified significance
=COMBIN(number,number_chosen)Number of combinations for a number of items
=COS(number)Cosine of an angle
=COSH(number)Hyperbolic cosine of a number
=DEGREES(angle)Number of degrees in the specified angle
=EVEN(number)Number rounded up to the nearest even integer
=EXP(number)Value of e raised to the power of the specified number
=FACT(number)Factorial of a number
=FLOOR(number,significance)Number rounded down to the nearest multiple of specified significance
=INT(number)Number rounded down to the nearest integer
=LN(number)Natural logarithm of a number
=LOG(number,base)Logarithm of a number using a base you specify
=LOG10(number)Base-10 logarithm of a number
=MDETERM(array)Matrix determinant of an array
=MINVERSE(array)Inverse matrix for the matrix stored in a specified array
=MMULT(array1,array2)Matrix product of two arrays
=MOD(number,divisor)The remainder, after a number is divided by specified divisor
=ODD(number)Number rounded up to the nearest odd integer
=PI( )Value of π to 15 digits of accuracy
=POWER(number,power)Number raised to the specified power.
=PRODUCT(number1,number2,…)Product of a series of numbers
=RAND( )Random number between 0 and 1 (result changes each time a worksheet is recalculated)
=ROMAN(number,form)Roman numeral representation of a number
=ROUND(number,num_digits)Number rounded up to the specified number of digits
=ROUNDDOWN(number,num_digits)Number rounded down (towards zero)
=ROUNDUP(number,num_digits)Number rounded up (away from zero)
=SIGN(number)Sign of a specified number (1=positive, 0=zero, -1=negative)
=SIN(number)Sine of an angle
=SINH(number)Hyperbolic sine of a number
=SQRT(number)Square root of a number
=SUBTOTAL(function_num,ref1,…)Subtotal in a series of numbers
=SUM(number1,number2,)Sum of an entire series of numbers
=SUMIF(range,criteria,sum_range)Sum of a series of numbers that meet a certain criteria
=SUMPRODUCT(array1,array2,…)Product of a series of arrays
=SUMSQ(number1,number2,)Sum of the squares of a list of numbers
=SUMX2MY2(array_x,array_y)Sum of differences between two squares of corresponding numbers
=SUMX2PY2(array_x,array_y)Sum of sums of squares of series of corresponding numbers
=SUMXMY2(array_x,array_y)Sum of the squares of the differences of corresponding series of numbers
=TAN(number)Tangent of an angle
=TANH(number)Hyperbolic tangent of a number
=TRUNC(number,num_digits)Number truncated to an integer with specified number of digits

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