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Part VIII: Appendixes > Math and Trig Functions

Math and Trig Functions

Excel's math and trigonometric functions perform a wide variety of calculations. The functions can compute sines, cosines, factorials, exponents, logs, and other such functions. Table B.7 details these functions.

Table B.7. Math and Trig Functions in Excel
Function SyntaxReturns
=ABS(number)Absolute (positive) value of a number, omitting any information to the right of the decimal place
=ACOS(number)Arccosine of a number in radians
=ACOSH(number)Inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number
=ASIN(number)Arcsine of a number in radians
=ASINH(number)Inverse hyperbolic sine of a number
=ATAN(number)Arctangent of a number in radians
=ATAN2(x_number,y_number)Arctangent of a coordinate in radians
=ATANH(number)Inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number
=CEILING(number,significance)Number rounded up to the nearest integer or multiple of specified significance
=COMBIN(number,number_chosen)Number of combinations for a number of items
=COS(number)Cosine of an angle
=COSH(number)Hyperbolic cosine of a number
=DEGREES(angle)Number of degrees in the specified angle
=EVEN(number)Number rounded up to the nearest even integer
=EXP(number)Value of e raised to the power of the specified number
=FACT(number)Factorial of a number
=FLOOR(number,significance)Number rounded down to the nearest multiple of specified significance
=INT(number)Number rounded down to the nearest integer
=LN(number)Natural logarithm of a number
=LOG(number,base)Logarithm of a number using a base you specify
=LOG10(number)Base-10 logarithm of a number
=MDETERM(array)Matrix determinant of an array
=MINVERSE(array)Inverse matrix for the matrix stored in a specified array
=MMULT(array1,array2)Matrix product of two arrays
=MOD(number,divisor)The remainder, after a number is divided by specified divisor
=ODD(number)Number rounded up to the nearest odd integer
=PI( )Value of π to 15 digits of accuracy
=POWER(number,power)Number raised to the specified power.
=PRODUCT(number1,number2,…)Product of a series of numbers
=RADIANS(angle)Radian of the specified angle
=RAND( )Random number between 0 and 1 (result changes each time a worksheet is recalculated)
=ROMAN(number,form)Roman numeral representation of a number
=ROUND(number,num_digits)Number rounded up to the specified number of digits
=ROUNDDOWN(number,num_digits)Number rounded down (towards zero)
=ROUNDUP(number,num_digits)Number rounded up (away from zero)
=SIGN(number)Sign of a specified number (1=positive, 0=zero, -1=negative)
=SIN(number)Sine of an angle
=SINH(number)Hyperbolic sine of a number
=SQRT(number)Square root of a number
=SUBTOTAL(function_num,ref1,…)Subtotal in a series of numbers
=SUM(number1,number2,)Sum of an entire series of numbers
=SUMIF(range,criteria,sum_range)Sum of a series of numbers that meet a certain criteria
=SUMPRODUCT(array1,array2,…)Product of a series of arrays
=SUMSQ(number1,number2,)Sum of the squares of a list of numbers
=SUMX2MY2(array_x,array_y)Sum of differences between two squares of corresponding numbers
=SUMX2PY2(array_x,array_y)Sum of sums of squares of series of corresponding numbers
=SUMXMY2(array_x,array_y)Sum of the squares of the differences of corresponding series of numbers
=TAN(number)Tangent of an angle
=TANH(number)Hyperbolic tangent of a number
=TRUNC(number,num_digits)Number truncated to an integer with specified number of digits



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