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### Shearing objects

Now you’ll complete the flower with an orange center, scale it, and shear it. Shearing an object slants, or skews, the sides of the object along the axis you specify, keeping opposite sides parallel and making the object nonsymmetrical.

 1 Select the Ellipse tool () from the same group as the Star tool () in the toolbox. 2 With the stars still selected and their center points visible, press Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS), position the Ellipse tool’s crosshairs over the stars’ center points, and drag to draw an oval from the center. 3 Click the Fill box in the toolbox to select the object’s fill. In the Swatches palette, click the Orange swatch to paint the oval an orange color. 4 In the Color palette, select Show Options, and drag the None icon () and drop it on the Stroke box in the Color palette to remove the stroke. Draw oval shape and paint fill. Drag and drop None button over Stroke box. Now, you’ll group and then shear the flower. 5 Choose the Selection tool (), Shift+click to select the three parts of the flower, and choose Object > Group to group them together. 6 In the Transform palette, type 10° in the Shear text field, and press Enter or Return to apply the shearing effect on the flower. Enter 10° shear angle. Result. 7 Type 0.75 in in the W text field to scale the flower down to three-quarters of an inch. Although the default unit of measure is set to points, when you type inches (or in) in the text fields, Illustrator calculates the equivalent measurement in points. You can have Illustrator convert unit values and perform mathematical operations in any text box that accepts numeric values. To automatically multiply or divide the size of an object by a number you specify, enter, respectively, an asterisk (*) or a slash (/) respectively, and a number after the value in either the W or the H text box, or in both text boxes, and press Enter or Return to scale the object. For example, enter /2 after the values in the W and H text boxes to scale the object by 50%. 8 Use the Selection tool to drag the flower to the bottom right corner of the page. Then Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) click, and drag the flower two times to make a cluster of flowers in the corner. 9 Choose Select > Deselect to deselect the artwork. 10 Choose View > Guides > Hide Guides to hide guides, and then choose File > Save. You’ve completed the letterhead artwork. Keep the file open so that you can use its artwork later in the lesson.

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