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Review questions

1:How can you select and manipulate individual objects in a group?
A1: You can use the group-selection tool () to select individual objects or subgroups of objects within a group and change them without affecting the rest of the group.
2:How do you resize an object? How do you determine the point from which the object resizes? How do you resize a group of objects proportionally?
A2: You can resize an object by selecting it and dragging handles on its bounding box or by using the scale tool, the Transform palette, or Object > Transform > Scale to specify exact dimensions. You can also scale by choosing Effect > Distort & Transform > Transform.

To determine the point of origin from which the objects scale, select a reference point in the Transform palette or in the Transform Effect or Transform Each dialog box, or click in the artwork with the scale tool. Holding down Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) and dragging the bounding box or double-clicking the scale tool will resize a selected object from its center point.

Shift-dragging a corner handle on the bounding box scales the objects proportionally, as will specifying a uniform scale value in the Scale dialog box or multiples of the dimensions in the Width and Height text boxes in the Transform palette.

3:What transformations can you make using the Transform palette?
A3: You use the Transform palette for making the following transformations:
  • Moving or strategically placing objects in your artwork (by specifying the x and y coordinates and the point of origin).

  • Scaling (by specifying the width and height of selected objects).

  • Rotating (by specifying the angle of rotation).

  • Shearing (by specifying the angle of distortion).

  • Reflecting (by flipping selected objects vertically or horizontally).

4:What does the square diagram indicate in the Transform palette, and how will it affect your transformations?
A4: The square diagram in the Transform palette indicates the bounding box of the selected objects. Select a reference point in the square to indicate the point of origin from which the objects will move, scale, rotate, shear, or reflect.
5:What is an easy way to change perspective? List three other types of transformations you can do with the free transform tool.
A5: An easy way to change the perspective of selected objects is to select the free transform tool (), hold down Shift+Alt+Ctrl (Windows) or Shift+Option+Command (Mac OS), and drag a corner handle on the bounding box.

Other types of transformations you can do with the free transform tool are distorting, scaling, shearing, rotating, and reflecting.

6:What is a symbol? What is a symbol instance? Why is it useful?
A6: A symbol is an art object that you store in the Symbols palette and reuse one or more times in a document. You can create symbols from any Illustrator art object, including paths, compound paths, text, raster images, gradient meshes, and groups of objects. (You can't use nonembedded placed art as a symbol.)

You can then add instances of that symbol as many times as you want to your artwork without actually adding the complex art multiple times. Symbols save you time and greatly reduce file size by letting you use the same artwork multiple times (as instances) in a document.

7:How do you create a variable? What are some uses for variables in your artwork?
A7: To create a variable, you make a selection in your artwork, and then bind a variable to the object. The type of object and type of variable determine what attributes of the object can change. You can bind a Visibility variable to any object to make the object's state of visibility dynamic. If the object is text, a linked image, or a graph, you can also make the object's content dynamic.

Using variables is a quick way to make artwork versions for a client that shows different iterations of the same design. You can also use variables to automate tedious design tasks, such as designing and updating business cards for hundreds of employees. You can use variables to update text, graph data, linked files, or graphics, and change them dynamically in your artwork.



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