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Chapter Summary

In this chapter we sorted out the Internet and some of the different TCP/IP protocols that were developed to access information on the Internet. Key points covered are as follows:

  • ARPA began the planning and building of the ARPAnet in the 1960s.

  • ARPAnet eventually evolved into the public TCP/IP network we call the Internet.

  • FTP is used to send and receive files on a TCP/IP network, such as the Internet.

  • FTP operates in a client/server environment. Client FTP software provides the interface for the user.

  • Anonymous FTP sites are common on the Internet. They allow any user to connect to a site and access the files there.

  • Internet e-mail uses the SMTP protocol to move mail from a mail client to the SMTP mail server.

  • E-mail clients come in the format username@domain.suffix. The username is actually the e-mail mailbox for the user, and the other information specifies the domain name of the company or institution.

  • E-mail clients use the POP3 protocol to retrieve mail from a POP3 mail server. All the mail on the server is uploaded to the client computer.

  • IMAP is an e-mail transport program that retrieves a list of e-mail on the server without downloading the mail. This means that a user can connect to the IMAP server from different devices and view the same e-mail messages and their status.

  • HTML is the coding language to create Web site pages.

  • The Web uses HTTP as the transport mechanism between Web browsers and Web sites.

  • Usenet provides newsgroups in a bulletin board environment where users can read and respond to messages.

  • Gopher was the first user-friendly interface for Internet content, but it has now faded into the background. You will occasionally stumble upon a Gopher server when searching for particular information using a Web browser.

  • DNS provides the strategy for resolving friendly FQDNs to IP addresses on the Internet.

  • The DNS name space is an upside-down tree, with the root of the DNS name space being the dot (yes, the same dot as found in "dot com").

  • DNS clients use a resolver that queries the primary DNS server for help with resolving FQDNs to IP addresses.

  • DNS servers maintain a database of records that map FQDNs to IP addresses. When a DNS server cannot find the information in its database, it will query other DNS servers on the Internet.



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