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### 8.7. Fine-tuning the mathematical layout

#### 8.7.1. Controlling the automatic sizing and spacing

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Although LaTeX generally does a good job of laying out the elements of a formula, it is sometimes necessary to fine-tune the positioning. This section describes how to achieve some of the many detailed adjustments to the layout that are used to produce mathematical typography that is just a little bit better. Most of this section applies to all LaTeX mathematical material, but a few features are available only with the amsmath package; these will be clearly labeled.

Letters and mathematical symbols normally get smaller, and are more tightly spaced, when they appear in fractions, superscripts, or subscripts. In total, TeX has eight different styles in which it can lay out formulas: