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Microsoft Access 2000, Version 9.0 (called Access 2000 in this book), is a powerful and robust 32-bit relational database management system (RDBMS) for creating desktop and client/server database applications that run under Windows 9x and Windows NT 4+. As a component of the Professional and Developer editions of the Microsoft Office 2000 suite, Access 2000 has an upgraded user interface that's consistent with Microsoft Excel 2000 and Word 2000, as well as with Windows 9x common controls, such as an Outlook-style Database window and common file open and save dialogs.

The most significant change from Access 97 is Access 2000's adoption of OLE DB, and ActiveX Data Object Extensions (ADOX) 2.1, ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) 2.1, which replace the venerable Data Access Object (DAO) for new Access applications and Access Data Projects (ADP). OLE DB and ADO are the foundation of Microsoft's Universal Data Access strategy. Chapter 27, "Understanding Universal Data Access, OLE DB, and ADO," provides detailed coverage of Access 2000's new data object model. Fortunately for current users of Access 2.0 through 97, Access 2000 continues to support DAO-based applications with updated DAO 3.6. The future of data, not just database, connectivity for Office and Internet/intranet applications, however, lies with ADO. Don't expect Microsoft to deliver significant updates to DAO beyond version 3.6.


Contrary to the "Jet is dead" rumors that appeared during mid-1998 in the computer trade press, Jet is very much alive and well. Microsoft uses Jet 3.5+ in more than 25 products, including Money, Greetings Workshop, Internet Information Server, Index Server, Project, and SQL Server 7.0. Access 2000 introduces version 4.0 of the Jet database engine, which offers a variety of new and useful features. Jet SQL (often called Access SQL) becomes increasingly compliant with ANSI (standard) SQL with each upgrade. Chapters 22, "Exploring Relational Database Design and Implementation," and 23, "Working with Structured Query Language," cover Jet 4.0's new features.

Like all members of Office 2000, Access 2000 offers a variety of new Internet-related features for creating HTML documents for use on intranets and the Internet; the most important of these for intranets is Data Access Pages (DAP). Microsoft's rallying cry for the retail release of Office 2000 is Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). Ease of use is one of the primary requisites for reducing TCO; Access 2000 includes many new or improved wizards and other aids designed for first-time database users.

A primary reason for Access's success is that it duplicates on the PC desktop many of the features of client/server relational database systems, also called SQL databases. Client/server RDBMSs are leading the way in transferring database applications from minicomputers and mainframes to networked PCs—a process called downsizing. Despite Access's power, this desktop RDBMS is easy for non-programmers to use. Buttons on upgraded multiple toolbars, which are almost identical across the Office 2000 members, offer shortcuts for menu commands. Office 2000 adaptive menus display only the most common choices; fortunately, you can turn adaptive menus off. An extensive collection of wizards and add-ins handle most of the mundane chores involved in creating and modifying tables, queries, forms, graphs, and reports. Builders aid you in creating complex controls on forms and reports, as well as in writing expressions. Last—and, in this case, least—an animated Office Assistant attempts to anticipate users' questions about Access 2000.

Microsoft Access 1.0 introduced a new approach to writing macros that automate repetitive database operations. The 40+ macro instructions of Access 95 and 97 were remarkably powerful; you could create quite sophisticated database applications by using only Access macros. Access 2000 relegates macros to the "for backward compatibility only" category. Office 2000 brings a common version 6.0 of 32-bit Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to Access, Excel, Word, and even PowerPoint. Access now uses the same VBA Editor as the other members of Access 2000. Visual Basic 6.0 shares the same VBA engine with members of Office 2000, but doesn't share the Office VBA Editor. VBA's syntax is easy to learn, yet it provides a vocabulary rich enough to satisfy veteran xBase and Paradox application developers. Making the transition from Access macros to VBA is important, because there's no guarantee that future versions of Access will continue to support macro programming.

Access 2000 and Visual Basic 6.0 share the capability to take advantage of ActiveX controls (formerly OLE Controls) that Microsoft, third-party add-in software publishers, and you create. ActiveX controls provide Access 2000 with the extensibility that VBX custom controls brought to Visual Basic. Access 2000 can accommodate almost every 32-bit OLE Control included with the Professional and Enterprise editions of Visual Basic 6.0, but you must license the Office 2000 Developer Edition (ODE) to include Visual Basic's databound controls in your Access applications and projects. The new, lightweight ActiveX controls for Internet and intranet applications, called Office Web Components, enable you to embed charts, spreadsheets, and PivotTables in browser-based applications.

Access is specifically designed for creating multiuser applications where database files are shared on networks, and Access incorporates a sophisticated security system to prevent unauthorized persons from viewing or modifying the databases you create. Access's security system is modeled on that of Microsoft SQL Server. No substantial changes have been made to the Access security system in Access 2000, but the User-Level Security Wizard introduced with Access 95 makes secure applications easier to implement and administer.

Access has a unique database structure that can combine all related data tables and their indexes, forms, reports, and VBA code within a single .mdb database file. It's now a generally accepted database design practice (GADBDP) to use separate .mdb files to contain data and application objects; your application .mdb links tables contained in the data .mdb. (The term link replaced attach beginning with Access 95.) Access 2000 also offers a secure file format, .mde, so that you can distribute Access applications without exposing your original VBA source code. Data Access Pages (.htm) and Access Data Projects (.adp) are the new file formats of Access 2000.

Access can import data from and export data to the more popular PC database and spreadsheet files, as well as text files. Access also can attach dBASE, FoxPro, and Paradox table files to databases and manipulate these files in their native formats, but support for attached files of these formats is very limited in Access 2000. You also can use Access on workstations that act as clients of networked file and database servers in client/server database systems. Access, therefore, fulfills all the requirements of a professional relational database management system, as well as a front-end development tool for use with client/server databases. Microsoft has made many improvements to these features in Access 2000. The most important new features of Access 2000 are discussed in Chapter 1, "Access 2000 for Access 95 and 97 Users: What's New."

Who Should Read this Book

Special Edition Using Access 2000 takes an approach that's different from most books about database management applications. This book doesn't begin with the creation of a database for Widgets, Inc., nor does it require you to type a list of fictional customers for the company's new Widget 2000 product line to learn the basics of Access. Instead, this book makes the following basic assumptions about your interest in Microsoft's relational database management system:

  • You can navigate Microsoft Windows 9x or NT 4.0+ with the mouse and keyboard.

  • You aren't starting from "ground zero." You now have or will have access via your PC to data that you want to process with a Windows database manager. You have acquired Access and want to learn to use it more quickly and effectively. Or you may be considering using Access as the database manager for yourself, your department or division, or your entire organization.

  • Your existing data is in the form of one or more database, spreadsheet, or even plain text files that you want to manipulate with a relational database management system. Access can process the most common varieties of these file types, as well as HTML tables, Exchange messages, and other tabular data sources.

  • If you're planning to use Access 2000 as a front end to a client/server RDBMS, you'll use the Microsoft Data Engine (MSDE) that's an integral part of Access 2000. Alternatively, you have SQL Server 6.5 or, preferably, SQL Server 7.0, installed or have an OLE DB data provider or ODBC driver, and the required client license for your SQL database.

  • If your data is on a mini- or mainframe computer, you're connected to that computer by a local area network and a database gateway or through terminal emulation software and an adapter card.

If some or all of your data is in the form of ASCII or ANSI text files, or files from a spreadsheet application, you need to know how to create an Access database from the beginning and import the data into Access's own .mdb file structure. If your data is in the form of dBASE, FoxPro, or Paradox files, you can link the files as tables and continue to use them in the format native to your prior database manager. Access 2000 also lets you link Excel and text files to Access databases. The capability to link files in their native format is an important advantage to have during conversion from one database management system to another. Each subject receives thorough coverage in this book.

How this Book Is Organized

Special Edition Using Access 2000 is divided into seven parts arranged in increasing levels of detail and complexity. Each division after Part I draws on the knowledge and experience you've gained in the prior parts, so use of the book in a linear, front-to-back manner through Part IV, "Publishing Data on Intranets and the Internet," is recommended during the initial learning process. After you absorb the basics, Special Edition Using Access 2000 becomes a valuable reference tool for the advanced topics.

As you progress through the chapters in this book, you create a model of an Access application called Personnel Actions. In Chapter 4, "Working with Access Databases and Tables," you create the Personnel Actions table. In the following chapters, you add new features to the Personnel Actions application. Be sure to perform the example exercises for the Personnel Actions application each time you encounter them, because succeeding examples build on your prior work.

The seven parts of Special Edition Using Access 2000 and the topics they cover are described in the following sections.

Part I: Learning Access Fundamentals

The chapters in Part I introduce you to Access and many of the unique features that make Access the easiest to use of all database managers. The chapters in Part I deal almost exclusively with tables, the basic elements of Access databases.

  • Chapter 1, "Access 2000 for Access 95 and 97 Users: What's New," provides a summary of the most important new features of Access 2000 and a detailed description of each addition and improvement. Much of the content of this chapter is of interest primarily to readers who now use Access 2.0, because most of the changes from Access 95 to 97 to Access 2000 are incremental in nature. Readers new to Access, however, benefit from the explanations of why many of these new features are significant in everyday use of Access 2000, and how they fit into Microsoft's Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) vision.

  • In Chapter 2, "Building Your First Access 2000 Application," you use the Database Wizard, introduced by Access 95, to create a database from the standard database templates included with Access 2000. You gain a basic understanding of the standard data-related objects of Access, including tables, forms, reports, and VBA modules. Chapter 2 introduces you to automating Access operations with VBA Class Modules, the replacement for Access macros, and the new Office VBA Editor.

  • Chapter 3, "Navigating Within Access," shows you how to navigate Access by explaining its toolbar and menu choices and how they relate to the structure of Access.

  • Chapter 4, "Working with Access Databases and Tables," delves into the details of Access tables, shows you how to create tables, and explains how to choose the optimum data types from the many new types Access offers. Chapter 4 introduces Access 2000's new subdatasheet feature for displaying and editing records related to those in the main table datasheet.

  • Chapter 5, "Entering, Editing, and Validating Data in Tables," shows you how to arrange the data in tables to suit your needs and limit the data displayed to only that information you want. Using Find and Replace to alter data in the fields of tables also is covered.

  • Chapter 6, "Sorting, Finding, and Filtering Data in Tables," describes how to add new records to tables, enter data in the new records, and edit data in existing records. Chapter 6 describes how to make best use of the Filter by Form and Filter by Selection features of Access 2000.

  • Chapter 7, "Linking, Importing, and Exporting Tables," explains how to import and export files of other database managers, spreadsheet applications, and even ASCII and HTML files you download from the Internet. Chapter 7 explains the Table Analyzer Wizard that aids in creating a relational database structure from "flat files" in ASCII and spreadsheet formats.

Part II: Getting the Most Out of Queries

The chapters in Part II explain how to create Access queries to select the way you view data contained in tables and how to take advantage of Access's relational database structure to link multiple tables with joins.

  • Chapter 8, "Designing Access Queries," starts with simple queries created with Access's graphical Query Design window. You learn how to choose the fields of the tables included in your query and return query result sets from these tables. Chapter 8 shows you how to use the Simple Query Wizard to simplify the design process.

  • Chapter 9, "Understanding Query Operators and Expressions," introduces you to the operators and expressions that you need to create queries that provide a meaningful result. You use the improved Immediate window of the Office 2000 VBA Editor to evaluate the expressions you write.

  • In Chapter 10, "Creating Multitable and Crosstab Queries," you create relations between tables, called joins, and learn how to add criteria to queries so that the query result set includes only those records you want. Chapter 10 also takes you through the process of designing powerful crosstab queries to summarize data and to present information in a format similar to that of worksheets.

  • Chapter 11, "Modifying Data with Action Queries," shows you how to develop action queries that update the tables underlying append, delete, update, and make-table queries. Chapter 11 also covers Access 2000's advanced referential integrity features, including cascading updates and cascading deletions.

Part III: Designing Forms and Reports

The chapters in Part III introduce you to the primary application objects of Access. (Tables and queries are considered database objects.) Forms make your Access applications come alive with the control objects you add by using Access 2000's toolbox. Access's full-featured report generator lets you print fully formatted reports or save reports to files that you can process in Excel 2000 or Word 2000.

  • Chapter 12, "Creating and Using Forms," shows you how to use Access's Form Wizards to create simple forms and subforms that you can modify to suit your particular needs. Chapter 12 introduces you to the Subform Builder Wizard that uses drag-and-drop techniques to automatically create subforms for you.

  • Chapter 13, "Designing Custom Multitable Forms," shows you how to design custom forms for viewing and entering your own data with Access's advanced form design tools.

  • Chapter 14, "Printing Basic Reports and Mailing Labels," describes how to design and print simple reports with Access's Report Wizard and how to print preformatted mailing labels by using the Mailing Label Wizard.

  • Chapter 15, "Preparing Advanced Reports," describes how to use more sophisticated sorting and grouping techniques, as well as subreports, to obtain a result that exactly meets your detail and summary data reporting requirements. Chapter 15 also covers the new Access Snapshot Technology that lets you distribute Access reports as Outlook e-mail attachments and the Snapshot Viewer for users without Access to display the attached reports.

Part IV: Publishing Data on Intranets and the Internet

The chapters in Part V describe how to take advantage of Access's Internet and intranet features and the new Data Access Pages technology introduced by Access 2000.

  • Chapter 16, "Working with Hyperlinks and HTML," describes Microsoft's Internet strategy and introduces you to Access 2000's new Hyperlink field data type. The chapter shows you how to use hyperlinks to connect to Word documents and Excel worksheets, as well as how hyperlinks can open Access form and report objects.

  • Chapter 17, "Generating Web Pages from Tables and Queries," describes how to export formatted static Web pages from table and query datasheets. You also learn how to use the Internet Data Connector and Active Server Pages to create browser-independent dynamic Web pages for the Internet.

  • Chapter 18, "Designing Data Access Pages," shows you how to generate dynamic Web pages to display and update data on your organization's intranet. The chapter describes how to add PivotTables and charts for data analysis and incorporate the Web-enabled version of subdatasheets for entering and editing database records.

Part V: Integrating Access with Other Office 2000 Applications

The chapters of Part V show you how to use the 32-bit Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) 2.1 features of Access 2000 with the new Microsoft Office Chart 9.0, plus OfficeLinks to Excel 2000 and Word 2000.

  • Chapter 19, "Adding Charts and Graphics to Forms and Reports," describes how to use the new Chart Wizard to create databound graphs and charts and shows you how to take advantage of Access OLE Object field data type and bound object frames to display images stored in your Access tables. Adding static graphics to forms and reports with unbound object frames also is covered.

  • Chapter 20, "Using Access with Microsoft Excel," gives you detailed examples for using the Access PivotTable Wizard to embed Excel PivotTables in forms. Excel PivotTables let you "slice and dice" data without rewriting queries. Chapter 20 also covers exchanging data between Access and Excel 2000 workbooks by using Access as an OLE 2.1 client and server, without the need to write VBA code.

  • Chapter 21, "Using Access with Microsoft Word and Mail Merge," shows you how to store documents in OLE Object fields, explains the OfficeLink Publish It with MS Word option for database publishing, and shows how to use Access 2000's Merge It OfficeLink feature to interactively create form letters and envelopes addressed with data from your Access applications.

Part VI: Using Advanced Access Techniques

The chapters of Part VI cover the theoretical and practical aspects of relational database design and Structured Query Language (SQL), and then go on to describe how to set up and use secure Access applications on a local area network.

  • Chapter 22, "Exploring Relational Database Design and Implementation," describes the process you use to create relational database tables from real-world data—a technique called normalizing the database structure. This chapter explains how to use the Database Documentor tool included with Access 2000 to create a data dictionary that fully identifies each object in your database.

  • Chapter 23, "Working with Structured Query Language," explains how Access uses the Jet dialect of SQL to create queries and how to write your own SQL statements. Special emphasis is given to the newer Jet SQL extensions, such as UNION queries and subqueries, as well as Jet 4.0's implementation of SQL's Data Definition Language (DDL).

  • Chapter 24, "Securing Multiuser Network Applications," explains how to set up Access to share database files on a network and how to use the security features of Access to prevent unauthorized viewing of or tampering with your database files.

  • Chapter 25, "Creating Access Data Projects," introduces you to the Microsoft Data Engine (MSDE) and its management and shows you how to design Access Data Projects (ADP) that take full advantage of this new embedded version of SQL Server 7.0 that runs on Windows 9x, Windows NT 4.0, and Windows 2000.

Part VII: Programming and Converting Access Applications

The chapters in Part VII assume that you have no programming experience in any language. These chapters explain the principles of writing programming code in VBA. They also show you how to apply these principles to automate Access applications and work directly with ADO Recordset objects. Part VII also supplies tips for converting Access 2.0, 95, and 97 applications to Access 2000.

  • Chapter 26, "Writing Visual Basic for Applications Code," describes how to use VBA to create user-defined functions stored in modules and to write simple procedures that you activate directly from events. Access's class modules, which let you store event- handling code in Form and Report objects, also are described.

  • Chapter 27, "Understanding Universal Data Access, OLE DB, and ADO," explains Microsoft's new approach to data connectivity and describes how to migrate from DAO to ADO and why this direction is important for your new Access applications.

  • Chapter 28, "Responding to Events with VBA 6.0," describes how to use VBA event-handling subprocedures in class modules to replace the macros used by earlier versions of Access. This chapter explains the events triggered by Access form, report, and control objects, and how to use methods of the DoCmd object to respond to events, such as clicking a command button.

  • Chapter 29, "Programming Combo and List Boxes," shows you how to take maximum advantage of Access 2000's unique combo and list boxes in decision-support applications. This chapter explains the VBA coding techniques for loading combo box lists and populating list boxes based on your combo box selections.

  • Chapter 30, "Working with ADO Recordsets, Forms, and Controls," explains VBA coding to manipulate ADODB.Recordset objects, including INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE operations. The chapter also describes how to take advantage of ADO's explicit transactions and how to populate combo and list boxes directly from Recordsets.

  • Chapter 31, "Migrating Access 9x Applications to Access 2000," tells you what changes you need to make when you convert your current 32-bit Access database applications to Access 2000.


The "Glossary" presents a descriptive list of the terms, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this book that might not be familiar to you and can't be found in commonly used dictionaries.

The Accompanying CD-ROM

The CD-ROM that accompanies this book includes Access 2000 database files containing tables, forms, reports, VBA code, and special files to complement design examples and shows you the expected result. An icon identifies sections that point to chapter files included on the accompanying CD-ROM. A very large (20MB) database, Beckwith.mdb, is included for optional use with some of the examples in this book. Beckwith is a mythical college in Texas with 30,000 students and 2,300 employees. Databases with a large number of records in tables are useful when designing applications to optimize performance.

Because you're likely to use Access as a member of the Microsoft Office 2000 suite of products, this book's CD-ROM also contains selected chapters from Que's Special Edition Using series of books on each Office 2000 product. The chapters offer helpful information on such topics as using FrontPage 2000 with Jet and MSDE databases and retrieving data from OLAP servers with Excel 2000.

How this Book Is Designed

The following special features are included in this book to assist readers.

If you've never used a database management application, you're provided with quick-start examples to gain confidence and experience while using Access with the Northwind Traders sample database. Like Access, this book uses the tabula rasa approach: each major topic begins with the assumption that you have no prior experience with the subject. Therefore, when a button from the toolbar or control object toolbox is used, its icon is displayed in the margin.


Tips describe shortcuts and alternative approaches to gaining an objective. These tips are based on the experience the author gained during more than seven years of testing successive alpha and beta versions of Access and Microsoft Office 2000 Developer (MOD).


Notes offer advice to help you use Access, describe differences between various versions of Access, and explain the few remaining anomalies you find in Access 2000.


Cautions are provided when an action can lead to an unexpected or unpredictable result, including loss of data; the text provides an explanation of how you can avoid such a result.

Features that are new or have been modified in Access 2000 are indicated by the 2000 icon in the margin, unless the change is only cosmetic. Where the changes are extensive and apply to an entire section of a chapter, the icon appears to the left or right of the section head.

The Year 2000 (Y2K) icon identifies new Access 2000 features that Microsoft designed to solve Y2K issues and specific steps you must take to assure reliable operation of your Access applications during the next century.

Cross-references to specific sections in other chapters follow the material they pertain to, such as in the following sample reference:

See "A Section in Another Chapter".

Most chapters include a "Troubleshooting" section at the end of the tutorial and reference contents. The elements of this section help you solve specific problems—common and uncommon—that you might run into when creating applications that use specific Access features or techniques.

At the end of each chapter is an "In the Real World" section that discusses the relevance of the chapter's content to the realm of production databases, the Internet, and other current computer-related topics that affect Access users and developers. The opinion-editorial (op-ed) style of many of the "In the Real World" sections reflects the author's view of the benefits—or drawbacks—of new Access features and related Microsoft technologies, based on the author's experience with production Access applications installed by several world-wide corporations.

Typographic Conventions Used in this Book

This book uses various typesetting styles to distinguish between explanatory and instructional text, text you enter in dialogs (set in bold face), and text you enter in code-editing windows (set in monospace type).

Key Combinations and Menu Choices

Key combinations that you use to perform Windows operations are indicated by joining the keys with a plus sign: Alt+F4, for example, indicates that you press and hold the Alt key while pressing the function key F4. In the rare cases when you must press and release a key, and then press another key, the keys are separated by a comma without an intervening space: Alt,F4, for example.

Key combinations that perform menu operations requiring more than one keystroke are called shortcut keys. An example of such a shortcut is the Windows 9x key combination Ctrl+C, which substitutes for the Edit menu's Copy command in almost all Windows applications.

Sequences of individual menu items are separated by a comma: Edit, Cut, for example. The Alt key required to activate a choice from the main menu with an accelerator key is assumed and not shown.

Successive entries in dialogs follow the tab order of the dialog. Tab order is the sequence in which the caret moves when you press the Tab key to move from one entry or control option to another, a process known as changing the focus. The entry or control option with the focus is the one that receives keystrokes or mouse clicks. Command buttons, option buttons, and check box choices are treated similarly to menu choices, but their accelerator key letters in the text aren't underlined.

File and folder names are initial-letter-capitalized in the text and headings of this book to conform with Windows 9x and Windows NT 4.0 file-naming conventions and the appearance of file names in Windows Explorer.

SQL Statements and Keywords in Other Languages

SQL statements and code examples are set in a special monospace font. Keywords of SQL statements, such as SELECT, are set in all uppercase. Ellipses (…) indicate intervening programming code that isn't shown in the text or examples.

Square brackets in monospace boldface type ([]) that appear within Jet SQL statements don't indicate optional items, as they do in syntax descriptions. In this case, the square brackets are used instead of quotation marks to frame a literal string or to allow use of a table and field names, such as [Personnel Actions], that include embedded spaces or special punctuation, or field names that are identical to reserved words in VBA.

Typographic Conventions Used for VBA

This book uses a special set of typographic conventions for references to Visual Basic for Applications keywords in the presentation of VBA examples:

  • Monospace type is used for all examples of VBA code, as in the following statement:

    Dim NewArray ( ) As Long
    ReDim NewArray (9, 9, 9)
  • Monospace type also is used when referring to names of properties of Access database objects, such as FormName.Width. The captions for text boxes and drop-down lists in which you enter values of properties, such as Source Connect String, are set in this book's regular textual font.

  • Bold monospace type is used for all VBA reserved words and type-declaration symbols (which aren't used in the code examples in this book), as shown in the preceding example. Standard function names in VBA also are set in bold monospace type so that reserved words, standard function names, and reserved symbols stand out from variable and function names and values you assign to variables.

  • Italic monospace type indicates a replaceable item, as in

    Dim DataItem As String
  • Bold italic monospace type indicates a replaceable reserved word, such as a data type, as in

    Dim DataItem As DataType

    DataItem is replaced by a keyword corresponding to the desired VBA data type, such as String or Variant.

  • An ellipsis (…) substitutes for code not shown in syntax and code examples, as in

    If…Then…Else…End If
  • Braces ({}) enclosing two or more identifiers separated by the pipe symbol (|) indicate that you must choose one of these identifiers, as in

    Do {While|Until}…Loop

    In this case, you must use the While or Until reserved word in your statement, but not the braces or the pipe character.

  • Square brackets ([], not in bold type) enclosing an identifier indicate that the identifier is optional, as in

    Set tblName = dbName.OpenTable(strTableName[, fExclusive])

    Here, the fExclusive flag, if set True, opens the table specified by strTableName for exclusive use. fExclusive is an optional argument. Don't include the brackets in any code you type.

System Requirements for Access 2000

Access 2000 is a very resource-intensive application, as are all other Office 2000 members. You'll find execution of Access applications on Pentium PCs slower than 166 MHz to be impaired, at best. Access 2000 requires 16MB of RAM for barely adequate performance with Windows 9x. If you plan to use Access 2000 to handle large databases or run it often with other applications, you should have a minimum of 32MB of RAM under Windows 9x and 64MB of RAM or more for Windows NT 4.0. You also should have a minimum of 300MB of free disk space before installing Office 2000.

Other Sources of Information for Access

SQL and relational database design, discussed in Chapters 23 and 24, are the subject of myriad guides and texts covering one or both of these topics. Articles in database-related periodicals and files you read on the Internet or download from online information utilities, such as CompuServe, provide up-to-date assistance in using Access 2000. The following sections provide a bibliography of database-related books and periodicals, as well as a brief description of Web sites and CompuServe forums of interest to Access users.


The following books complement the content of this book by providing detailed coverage of Access and VBA programming techniques, application design, Structured Query Language, client/server databases, and the Windows 9x and Windows NT operating systems:

  • Platinum Edition Using Microsoft Access 2000 by Roger Jennings (Que, to be published in 1999) offers coverage of the advanced Access topics that aren't included in this book, which is intended for beginning through intermediate Access 2000 users. The Platinum Edition emphasizes client/server applications with Access Data Projects and OLE DB/ADO, SQL Server stored procedures, advanced VBA programming, the Office 2000 PivotTable service, replicating Access and SQL Server 7.0 databases, and the Office 2000 Developer Edition (ODE).

  • F. Scott Barker's Microsoft Access 2000 Power Programming by F. Scott Barker (Sams, ISBN 0-672-31506-8) shows you how to get the most out of the Access flavor of VBA 5.0 and complements the VBA programming chapters of Part VII of this book.

  • Understanding the New SQL: A Complete Guide by Jim Melton and Alan R. Simpson (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, ISBN 1-55860-245-3) describes the history and implementation of the American National Standards Institute's X3.135.1-1992 standard for the latest official version of Structured Query Language, SQL-92, on which Jet SQL is based. Melton was the editor of the ANSI SQL-92 standard, which consists of more than 500 pages of fine print.

  • Database Developer's Guide with Visual Basic 6 by Roger Jennings (Sams Publishing, ISBN 0-672-31063-5) covers advanced VBA programming with ADO, Remote Data Service (RDS), hierarchical Recordsets, the PivotTable service, DataCubes, and other developer topics. If you have Microsoft Office 2000 Developer, (MOD), this book explains how to take maximum advantage of MOD's Visual Basic 6.0 databound controls and other high-end components for developers.

  • Sams Teach Yourself Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 in 21 Days by Richard Waymire and Rick Sawtell (Sams, ISBN 0-672-31290-5) is designed to bring system and database administrators, as well as developers, up-to-date on the latest and greatest version of Microsoft SQL Server. Having a tutorial and reference for SQL Server 7.0 is important when working with MSDE, because the embedded version of SQL Server 7.0 that comes with Access 2000 doesn't include SQL Server documentation or administrative tools.

  • Special Edition Using Microsoft Internet Information Server 4 by Nelson Howell, et al. (Que, ISBN 0-7897-1263-6), supplies detailed instructions for setting up an Internet or intranet Web site by using IIS 4.0. Special Edition Using Microsoft Internet Information Server 4 extends the coverage of this book's Part IV, "Publishing Data on Intranets and the Internet."

  • Special Edition Using Windows NT Server 4, Second Edition, by Roger Jennings (Que, ISBN 0-7897-1388-8) provides all the information you need to set up Windows NT Server 4.0 for sharing Access databases, install and run Microsoft SQL Server, and create your own intranet Web site with Internet Information Server.

  • Special Edition Using Windows NT Workstation 4.0, Second Edition by Paul Sanna, et al. (Que, ISBN 0-7897-1384-5), provides coverage of the client-side features of Windows NT 4.0 that are beyond the scope of this book.

  • Platinum Edition Using Windows 98, by Ron Person, et al. (Que, ISBN 0-7897-1489-2), is a 1,400-page book that covers all aspects of Windows 98 in detail and is especially useful as a reference for Windows 98 client networking and user/policy management.


The following are a few magazines and newsletters that cover Access exclusively or in which articles on Microsoft Access appear on a regular basis:

  • Access-Office-VB Advisor, published by Advisor Communications International, Inc., is a full-color, bimonthly magazine intended to serve Access users and developers. You can supplement your subscription with an accompanying disk that includes sample databases, utilities, and other software tools for Access.

  • Inside Microsoft Access is a monthly newsletter of Access tips and techniques of the Cobb Group, which publishes various newsletters on products such as Visual Basic and Paradox.

  • Web Builder, a Web-based publication of Fawcette Technical Publications, Inc., covers Internet- and intranet-related topics, with emphasis on Internet Information Server and Visual Basic, Scripting Edition (VBScript) and ECMAScript (JavaScript or JScript). Fawcette's Web site is at http://www.devx.com.

  • Smart Access is a monthly newsletter of Pinnacle Publishing, Inc., which publishes several other database-related newsletters. Smart Access is directed primarily to developers and Access power users. This newsletter tends toward advanced topics, such as creating libraries and using the Windows API with VBA. A disk is included with each issue. Like other publications directed to Access users, much of the content of Smart Access is of equal interest to Visual Basic database developers.

  • Visual Basic Programmer's Journal is a monthly magazine from Fawcette Technical Publications that covers all dialects of VBA. Visual Basic Programmer's Journal has a monthly column and many feature articles devoted to database topics of interest to Access and Visual Basic developers.


Microsoft's Web site now is the primary source of new and updated information for Access users and developers. Following are the primary Web sites and newsgroups for Access 2000 users and developers:

  • Microsoft's Access home page, http://www.microsoft.com/access/, is the jumping-off point for Access users and includes links to all related home pages on the Microsoft Web site.

  • Microsoft's Access Developer home page, http://www.microsoft.com/accessdev/, provides various links to information of particular interest to the Access developer community. This home page provides a link for downloading the Access 2000 Upsizing Wizard for automating the migration of Access multiuser applications to SQL Server 6.5 databases.

  • Microsoft's online support home page, http://support.microsoft.com/support/, provides links to Microsoft Knowledgebase pages for all its products. For other support options, go to http://www.microsoft.com/Support/.

  • DevX, Fawcette Technical Publications' new Web site for Windows developers at http://www.devx.com/, offers a wide range of database topics, plus news, features, and product reviews of ActiveX controls.

  • Microsoft's msnews.microsoft.com news server offers various Access-related newsgroups at microsoft.public.access.subject. When this book was written, there were more than 20 Access subject areas.

  • The Microsoft Access World Wide Developer Network site at http://www.wji.com/access/homepage.html provides a forum for Access developers with tips and source code, Access User Group meeting announcements, and links to other sites with Access content.

  • The Usenet comp.databases.ms-access newsgroup is an active community of Access users and developers.

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