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Chapter 5. Clause and Effect > Appositive Phrases - Pg. 53

Clause and Effect 1. 2. Present participles end in ing (snowing, burning, beating). Past participles usually end in ed, t, or en (snowed, burnt, beaten). The whining sound came from the engine. Confused, my friend could not follow my directions. 53 These sentences use participles: In the first sentence, the present participle "whining" describes the noun "sound." In the second sentence, the past participle "confused" modifies the noun "friend." Write Angles A participle phrase can be placed either before or after the word it describes. Participle phrases contain a participle modified by an adverb or an adverbial phrase. Present par- ticiples look like gerunds--it's the function that identifies them. The entire phrase functions as an adjective, as these examples show: