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Chapter 5. Clause and Effect > Verbal Phrases - Pg. 50

Clause and Effect 50 Verbal Phrases A verbalphrase is a verb form used as another part of speech. There are three kinds of verbal phrases: ger-unds, infinitives, and participles. Each type of verbal phrase fulfills a different role in a sentence: · Gerunds serve as nouns. · Infinitives serve as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. · Participles serve as adjectives. Gerund Phrases A gerund is not an upscale breakfast food, snazzy designer water, or flashy imported car. A ger- und is a verb form that acts as a noun. A gerund phrase is a gerund with modifiers that together function as a noun. Write Angles Gerunds are easier to identify than many other parts of speech because they always end in ing and they always function as nouns. Many of the words you think are nouns are gerunds. They're just verbs playing with your head by masquerading as nouns. Within a sentence, a gerund can function as a subject, direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition, predicate nominative, or appositive. Find the gerund phrases in these sentences: Running out of ice cream after a bad hair day can be a horrible experience. P.J.'s favorite activity is cruising the Internet. In the first sentence, the gerund "running" is part of the gerund phrase "running out of ice cream after a bad hair day." The whole kit and caboodle is the subject of the sentence. In the second sentence, the gerund "cruising" is part of the gerund phrase "cruising the Internet." In this case, the gerund phrase is working as a predicate nominative. Infinitive Phrases Infinitives are verb forms that come after the word to and act as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. As with gerunds, infinitives can fill different grammatical functions within a sentence, as the following examples show: · To apologize often requires courage and humility.