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My Way or the Highway: Speaking to Persuade 72 In this chapter, you'll learn how to speak to persuade. First, you'll learn the importance of facts and how to research text and electronic media. Then you'll learn how to evaluate your sources by as- sessing their quality, bias, and appropriateness. Next comes inductive and deductive reasoning, and appeals to emotion. The chapter concludes with a discussion of logical fallacies: begging the question, bogus claims, false analogies, loaded terms, misrepresentation, oversimplifying the issue, Post hoc ergo propter hoc, and reasoning backward. By the end of this chapter, you'll know the basics of constructing a powerful persuasive speech. I've Looked at Life from Both Sides Now Q: Why are there so many Smiths in the phone book? A: They all have phones. There's one sure way to stop an argument: Drop a hard fact on it. The strength of your argument depends on three aspects of persuasion: logic, emotion, and credibility. That's why you must re- search opposing arguments as well as the argument you wish to support. Start with logic--the facts. Bank robber Willie Sutton explained that he robbed banks because "That's where the money is." Well, the library is where the facts are: There are more than 100,000 in the United States, with more than 2 billion books in them. Class Act After you do your own research, go for the heavy artillery: the reference librarian. A good reference librarian is a priceless source. It pays to become friendly with these wonderful people--they can save you hours of toil. A cooperative reference librarian might even answer questions on the telephone, saving you a trip to the library. You can easily find a great deal of information at your local library. First, check basic reference sources such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, newspapers, magazines, almanacs, and Facts on File. Some additional reference sources also are chock-full of facts: · · · · · · · Akey, Denise. Encyclopedia of Associations . American Society of Composers, Authors & Publishers. Hit Songs . (ASCAP). Asimov, Isaac. Isaac Asimov's Book of Facts . Hatch, Jane, ed. The American Book of Days . Levine, Michael. The Address Book: How to Reach Anyone Who's Anyone . Peter, Lawrence, ed. Peter's Quotations: Ideas for Our Time . The World Almanac. Surfing the Net Cyberspace also contains some great speech stuff in Cyberspace. The Web isn't like a library where information has been arranged within an accepted set of rules, however. It's more like a garage sale, where items of similar nature are usually grouped together--but not always. As a result, you'll find treasures side-by-side with trash. And like a garage sale, the method of organization on the Web shifts constantly.