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Chapter 16. Body Building > Cast and Crew - Pg. 132

Body Building 132 Often, one or more of these forms of support are combined, as when anecdotes are used to provide examples or when facts are added to personal experience. Comparisons and Contrasts A comparison points out the similarities between something that is already known and something that is not. A contrast shows the differences between two things. Comparisons and contrasts illu- minate the unknown. For example, a speaker can explain the unfamiliar game of cricket to Ameri- cans by comparing and contrasting it to a familiar American game: baseball. Because comparisons and contrasts draw a judgment based on a single instance, it must be a valid analogy to be believable. The two objects being compared must be closely alike in all essential respects. The question you must ask yourself is, "Do the similarities between the items outweigh any differences that might be important to the conclusion I am trying to draw?" Examples An example is a type of support in which you state several specific, brief instances or facts. It re- counts an incident that brings out the point you're making. Sometimes an example describes a typical instance; in other times, it depicts an actual situation. There are two main types of examples: factual and hypothetical. The former tells what actually happened; the latter, what could happen. To be convincing, a hypothetical example must make sense and match the facts. Hypothetical examples make abstract explanations more vivid and spe- cific, and they're especially useful in explaining a complicated plan. Instead of just outlining the details, you can create a hypothetical situation and trace the process. Class Act Break down a major topic into its components or subtopics. For instance, health care can be subdivided into types and costs. Discuss each topic in turn. Facts Facts are statements that can be proven. Factual examples describe situations that have actually happened. Facts make for a particularly effective means of support because they cannot be easily refuted. The incident becomes vivid to the audience; because it is true, it has great persuasive power. Furthermore, facts create credibility. They help convince your audience that you know what you're saying and that you deserve to be taken seriously. Consider these points when selecting facts: · Is the fact clearly related to the main point of the speech? · Is the fact a fair example? Select representative facts and examples; details drawn from left field have little power because they are anomalies. · Is the fact vivid and impressive?