Are We There Yet?: Conclusions, Revisions, and Titles 141 Just as you can open your speech with an illustration, you also can close with one. The following surrender speech by Chief Joseph, leader of the Nez Perce Indians, is a quietly eloquent illustration of the need for peace. In 1877, a dispute between the Native American tribe and the federal gov- ernment erupted into war. Hoping to join forces with the Sioux, Chief Joseph led his people on a long march from Oregon to Canada. The tribe was heavily outnumbered by government troops; on October 5, Chief Joseph was forced to surrender. The speech centers on the factual illustration of his tribe's situation. Notice the powerful effect of the repetition, parallel structure, and simple words. The speech is reprinted below in its entirety. Notice especially how the conclusion uses an illustration of the fate of his people. Tell General Howard I know his heart. What he has told me before, I have in my heart. I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed. Looking Glass is dead. Toohoolhoolzote is dead. The old men are dead. It is the young men who say yes or no. He who led on the young men is dead. It is cold, and we have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them, have run away to the hills and have no blankets, no food; no one knows where they are --perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children and see how many I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs. I am tired; my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever. Might Makes Right: Using Inducement You can also conclude a speech by revisiting the key ideas and then supplying one or two additional examples for accepting the belief or taking the action you proposed. Class Act