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Chapter 10. Traveling with Colons and Pr... > Activity A. Language Arts Recall

Activity A. Language Arts Recall

Colons appear at the end of an independent clause when followed by a list or an explanation.

Rule 10.1:

Place a colon after the phrase “as follows,” “the following,” or “as detailed below” after an independent clause that is followed by a list or an explanation.

Example: Travelers are interested in touring the following countries: England, Spain, and Australia.

Rule 10.2:

Place a colon between the hours and minutes when the time is expressed in figures.

Example: The plan leaves at 1:30 p.m.

Rule 10.3:

Use a colon after an independent clause that introduces a quotation of three or more lines.

Example: Here is the advice given to travelers in the new edition of The Travel Guide:

Charter flights are often the least expensive way to travel on transcontinental routes. A traveler must be willing to adjust to the limited flight schedule of the chartered airline.

Rule 10.4:

Place a colon after a salutation.

Example: Dear Ms. Johnson:

Pronouns

A pronoun is a word that is used to replace a noun. “Who” and “whom” are pronouns that refer to people. They may be singular or plural in number and may be interrogative or relative.

An interrogative pronoun is used in a sentence that asks a question. A relative pronoun introduces a clause within a sentence that modifies a noun.

Note: To help you determine whether to use “who” or “whom,” rearrange the sentence and substitute a personal pronoun for “who” or “whom.”

  • To determine if the pronoun “who” should be used, substitute “I,” “we,” “she,” “he,” or “they.”

  • To determine if the pronoun “whom” should be used, substitute “me,” “us,” “her,” “him,” or “them.”

The different forms of personal pronouns are listed in the chart below:

Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Possessive Pronouns
I, we me, us my, mine, our, ours
you you your, yours
he, she, it, him, her, it his, her, hers, its
they them their, theirs
who, whoever whom, whomever whose


Rule 10.5:

The pronoun “who” is used in the subjective case.

Example: Who signed up for the trip to the Canadian Rockies?

Check: She signed up for the trip to the Canadian Rockies. (“She” is the substitute for the pronoun “who.”)

Rule 10.6:

The pronoun “whom” is used in the objective case.

Example: Whom did you sign up for the trip to the Canadian Rockies?

Check: You signed him up for the trip to the Canadian Rockies. (“Him” is the substitute for the pronoun “whom.”)

A relative pronoun introduces a clause that modifies a noun. The way the pronoun is used in its own clause determines if it is “who” or “whom.” For example, a pronoun that functions as a subject is in the subjective, or nominative, case (who); a pronoun that functions as an object is in the objective case (whom).

Rule 10.7:

The pronoun “who” is used as the subject of a verb in a clause.

Check: The client is planning a trip….

She is planning a trip to….(“She” substitutes for the pronoun “who.”)

Rule 10.8:

The pronoun “whom” is used as the object of a verb and a preposition.

Check: You traveled with him to the Far East. (object of preposition “with.”)

Check: I interviewed her for the position…. (“Her” substitutes for the pronoun “whom.”) (“Whom” is the object of the verb “interviewed.”)

Rule 10.9:

“That” and “which” are relative pronouns. “Which” refers to things; “that” refers to people or things. Always use “which” when introducing a nonrestrictive clause; “that” is generally used to introduce a restrictive clause.

Examples: The European tour, which was scheduled for next month, was canceled. (nonrestrictive)

The island that he visited was beautiful. (restrictive)


Check for Understanding


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