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Chapter 7. Retailing Commas in Words, Ph... > Activity A. Language Arts Recall

Activity A. Language Arts Recall

Comma Usage

Commas that are used within a sentence show relationships between words, phrases, or clauses.

Series of Words, Phrases, and Clauses

Rule 7.1:

Use a comma after each item in a series of words, phrases, or clauses, including the item before the conjunction “and.”

Example: We stock accessories, luggage, and stationery.

Nonrestrictive and Restrictive Clauses

Rule 7.2:

Use commas around nonrestrictive clauses and phrases (clauses that are not essential to the meaning of the sentence).

Example: Your catalog order, which was received today, will be shipped immediately.

Rule 7.3:

Do not use commas around restrictive clauses (clauses that are essential to the meaning of the sentence).

Example: The customer who returned the damaged item was given a refund.

Rule 7.4:

Do not use a comma before the word “that” when it introduces a clause that is essential to the meaning.

Example: The one-day sale that was scheduled for January 4 is canceled until further notice.

Appposition

Rule 7.5:

Use commas to separate words or phrases in apposition (when words within commas explain the preceding noun or pronoun).

Example: Her first book, Steps to Successful Selling, was just published.

Rule 7.6:

Do not use a comma when a word or phrase in apposition is essential to identify the preceding noun.

Example: The new book How to Shop is offered at a discount to customers.

Consecutive Adjectives

Rule 7.7:

Use a comma to separate two or more consecutive adjectives that modify a noun. To test for a comma, mentally insert the word “and” between the two adjectives or reverse the order of the adjectives.

Example: Soft, silky fabric was used in our collection of scarves. (Test: Soft and silky fabric….)

Dates

Rule 7.8:

Use commas to set off items in dates. When a year is used with other items in a date, place a comma after the year.

Example: March 1, 2001, is the date we scheduled for the flea market sale.

Cities and States

Rule 7.9:

Use a comma between the name of a city and the name of a state. Also, place a comma after the name of the state when it is preceded by the name of a city and is not followed by final punctuation.

Example: We will be visiting Charleston, West Virginia, and Asheville, North Carolina.


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