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Chapter 6. Maintaining Healthy Complex S... > Activity A. Language Arts Recall

Activity A. Language Arts Recall

Sentence Structure: Complex Sentence

A complex sentence consists of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses which appear anywhere within the sentence. (A clause is a unit that includes a subject and a verb.)

An independent clause, as you reviewed in Chapter 5, can stand alone as a sentence because it has a subject and a predicate (verb and its modifiers) and expresses a complete thought.

Example: Good nutrition and exercise are two basic factors in maintaining a healthy body.

A dependent clause does not express a complete thought; therefore, it cannot stand alone.

Example: If individuals exercise and follow nutritious diets, they will maintain healthy bodies. (The italicized, dependent clause cannot stand alone because it does not express a complete thought.)

Comma Usage in Complex Sentences: Introductory Clauses

Rule 6.1:

When there is an introductory clause at the beginning of a sentence before the independent clause, place a comma after it.

Example: As we discussed yesterday, a registration form will be mailed to you. (introductory clause)

Rule 6.2:

A dependent clause at the end of a sentence in its usual grammatical position is usually not set off by a comma.

(When the clause is at the beginning of a sentence, it is an introductory clause.) Example: You may be interested in the health options although you are enrolled in the community insurance program.

Although you are enrolled in the community insurance program, you may be interested in the health options.

Comma Usage: Introductory Phrases

A phrase consists of two or more words that do not contain a subject and a verb. It expands the meaning of the sentence.

Example: If available, our spring catalog will be sent to you.

Rule 6.3:

When a phrase occurs at the beginning of a sentence before the independent clause, place a comma after it.

Example: At the beginning of the month, a seminar on medical insurance plans will be held. (introductory phrase)

Rule 6.4:

When an introductory clause or phrase is the subject of a verb, do not place a comma after it.

Example: To secure adequate health insurance coverage is a necessity for individuals and families.

Comma Usage: Parenthetical Expressions

Parenthetical expressions are unnecessary words that do not add meaning to the sentence.

Rule 6.5:

Use commas around parenthetical expressions (unnecessary words) that occur within a sentence or at the beginning of a sentence.

Example: In our opinion, a greater number of people maintain a healthy diet and follow an exercise program.

Nutritionists, without a doubt, recommend a healthy diet and moderate exercise.


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