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Chapter 11. Governing Quotations > Activity A. Language Arts Recall

Activity A. Language Arts Recall

Quotation Marks

Quotation marks indicate a speaker's exact words. Quotation marks are used at the beginning and end of the quoted phrases or statements. This is called direct speech.

Note: Quotation marks are not used for a paraphrase or a restatement of a quotation, called reported speech. Paraphrases are often introduced by the word “that.”

Rule 11.1:

Use quotation marks around a person's exact words.

Example: Mr. Eric Johnson stated, “Satellite discs will be a hot issue at the next meeting.” (direct speech)

Mr. Johnson said that a discussion on satellite discs will be on the agenda next month. (paraphrase/reported speech)

Note: A comma usually precedes a quotation. The first word of the quotation is capitalized.

Rule 11.2:

Use quotation marks around each segment of the quotation when there is an interruption. Note that the first word of the second segment of the quotation begins with a lowercase letter unless it is a proper noun. Set off the interrupting expression with commas.

Example: “We need to call a meeting,” the town supervisor said, “to discuss zoning procedures for commercial development.”

Rule 11.3:

Use single quotation marks for words quoted within a quotation.

Example: The guest speaker asked, “Has anyone read the pamphlet 'Tips for the Consumer'?”

Rule 11.4:

Use quotation marks around the titles of complete but unpublished works, such as reports, manuscripts, programs, and booklets. However, underline or italicize the titles of complete published works, such as books, magazines, and newspapers.

Example: You will want to read the report “The New Direction of Government Spending” that appeared in The Daily Record.

Rule 11.5:

Use quotation marks around titles that represent parts of published works, such as chapters in a book, lessons, and articles.

Example: The chapter “Community Volunteerism” that is found in the best seller Government Update is very informative.

Punctuation at the End of Quotation Marks

Rule 11.6:

When a sentence ends in a period or comma, the period or comma is always placed inside a quotation mark.

Example: Mary Kelly stated, “A major construction project on our main highway will begin at the end of the year.”

Rule 11.7:

Colons and semicolons are always placed outside the quotation mark.

Example: The flyer read, “The conference fee is $59”; however, the special group rate was not mentioned.

Rule 11.8:

Question marks and exclamation points are placed either inside or outside the quotation marks depending upon the meaning of the sentence.

Place a question mark or exclamation point inside the quotation marks when it applies to the sentence that is within the quotation marks.

Example: The professor asked, “Is there a difference in earnings between union and nonunion workers?”

When the question mark or exclamation point applies to the entire sentence, it goes outside the quotation mark.

Example: Did Ramon say, “The unemployment rates in the various sections of the country are decreasing”?

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