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Chapter 4. Surface Attributes > Setting Up Mapping

5. Setting Up Mapping

The parameters in Diffuse Color, Basics, and Effects that have been explained so far change all the configured objects into the same state. However, you can apply each attribute to any specific part of the object by using Mapping.

It is very easy to operate this setting because it works intuitively by using images.


Setting Up Mapping

Create one surface of an object first. Open the file “mapping_flow.shd” from the CD-ROM.

By proceeding with this tutorial, you can master the basic operations for setting mapping attributes.

This brush was created from three kinds of curved surfaces.

Mapping for a Brush

Set mapping attributes on the metal belt first. Select the top curved surface in the “Browser Window.” Then click the Basics show/hide button and confirm the basic attributes.

Since this is a metal, the Diffuse Color is set to moderate and Specular is set up as soft.

Although Metallic in the Effects attributes can convey the sense of a metal, it can set only a color and intensity. After setting these attributes and rendering, examine the result. Reset the Metallic slider to 0 before continuing.

Setup for metallic surface.

Although a metallic touch appears, because it is only a color and strength, there is an unsatisfactory quality to it.

When you select Spotted from the Mapping Pattern pop-up menu in the Mapping section, the mapping attributes that were dim become active and you can set up various attributes.

When you select Spotted from the Mapping Pattern pop-up menu, the Mapping Type pop-up menu next to the Mapping Pattern pop-up menu becomes active as well. If the object is rendered, the metal belt will be slightly colored with a black pattern. This is because the Spotted pattern is applied to the Diffuse Color.

A slightly black pattern has emerged. Using the Spotted pattern as the Diffuse Color creates this effect.

Drag white to the Pattern Color box of the “Surface Window” from the “Color Window.”

If you render the object, the portion that was black turns white so that it appears painted with an airbrush. This means that the Diffuse Color has partly changed.

When white is dragged to the Pattern Color box of the “Surface Window” from the “Color Window,” the portion that was black turns white.

Since the surface doesn't seem like a metal, render it after selecting Environment from the Mapping Type popup menu. A metallic highlight comes out on the bent part of the brush.

The Environment parameter does not appear in the Basics section or in the setup of Effects attributes. It can set up the environment that wraps the object.

A metallic highlight comes out when Environment is selected from the Mapping Type popup menu.

When the Mapping Type is set to Environment, a pattern preview forms a sphere that encloses the object as shown in the figure.

The object needs the quality of metal. Adjust various values of the pattern. Set the Size slider to 0.26 and set the Softness slider to 0.51.

Adjust many times if needed to make the boundary of a pattern strong and small. The pattern should appear repeatedly.

Add a new pattern and provide more of a sense of reality. When you select 2 from the Texture Layer pop-up menu in the “Surface Window,” you can add a new pattern to the object.

Choose Spotted from the Mapping Pattern pop-up menu and select Bump from the Mapping Type pop-up menu.

The Bump parameter also does not appear in the Basics or Effects sections. It gives the appearance of an uneven object. The object does not actually become uneven.

Specifying Bump makes it realistic.

Next, let's set up the grip surface attribute. Select the second curved surface in the “Browser Window” and select Log from the Mapping Pattern pop-up menu. Since you may not know the setup of the object's surface attributes unless rendering is carried out, definitely render it to confirm it.

It appears that the scale of the selected pattern is too large. You need to make it smaller. If you press the Size -/+ button next to the Size slider, a square box is displayed in the “Figure Window.” This shows the size of a pattern preview. Click the Size button several times to adjust the size of the mapped image in the preview box.

If the “-” or “+” button and a size slider are moved, a box will appear in the “Figure Window”. The standard is that the preview size becomes the same size as the box. Here, “-” was clicked one time.Wood grain was drawn in a suitable size.

Next, set the color. Set it up by using the “Color Window” efficiently. Drag the color to the Color box of the “Color Window” from the Diffuse Color box. After that, if you tune the saturation and brightness and adjust the hue slider, you can make a different color with a similar feeling. When you then drag it to the Pattern Color box, the color is easily set up.

Drag the Diffuse Color to the Color box.

Edit the color a little and drag it to the Pattern Color box.

Modify the size and the direction of the pattern a little more. If the Modify check box is selected, the handle appears to change the direction of the pattern in the “Figure Window.” You can drag this handle and modify the direction of the pattern.

Switch on the Modify check box.

Change the pattern's direction in the “Figure Window”.The direction of the pattern is changed a little.

Create the bump of the grain of the brush. Choose 2 from the Texture Layer pop-up menu, Log from the Mapping Pattern pop-up menu, and Bump from the Mapping Type pop-up menu.

The grain seems to shift if the positions of the layered patterns are not overlapped. Adjust the positions using the “M” and “R” buttons, so that the two layers overlap.

On Layer 1, click “M” in both the size setup and again in the orientation setup. On Layer 2, click “R” by both.

Bump and a pattern are applied.

In order to show the grain more impressively and strongly, register a spot pattern with an affiliated color into the third texture layer.

The image becomes realistic by adding a specific light or weak pattern. Here, the Spotted pattern is used.

Move on to mapping an image of hair onto the brush. Select the third curved surface from the top of the “Browser Window,” and select Image from the Mapping Pattern pop-up menu. The following three images have been prepared for you.


Color.pct

Mask.pct

Bump.pct

Press +Click(M) / Right-Click(W) within the picture box to display the contextual menu, and select Load. Select the file “Color.pct” and click Open.

Different file types can be loaded in Mac OS X versus Windows. A PICT file can be used for both.

An image was loaded.

When the object is rendered, it is mapped with the image shifted 90 degrees. After selecting the Switch Axes check box, render it.

Render it after clicking in the Switch Axes check box.

Length and width swap, and the rendering is carried out.

Set 2 from the Repeat pop-up menu and render the object.

Set the Repeat setting of the width to 2.

Choose 2 from the Texture Layer pop-up menu, Image from the Mapping Pattern pop-up menu, and Bump from the Mapping Type pop-up menu. Then, load the “Bump.pct” file. Choose 3 from Texture Layer menu, Image from the Mapping Pattern menu, and Specular 2 from the Mapping Type menu. Load the file “Mask.pct.” Render the image. If you use a monochrome image for the Specular 2 mapping type, it will appear as though this particular parameter has been turned on or off in different parts of the image. For example, if you set a monochrome image as a Specular 2 mapping type, the Specular 2 parameter in the Basics settings will be effective in the white area of the monochrome image, and will be ineffective in the black area.


For the Bump setting, a gray image is used.

When the feeling of a surface attribute is changed completely, as with the brush with paint attached, a monochrome mask picture is used.Completed image.


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