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Chapter 4. Surface Attributes > Basic Parameters

3. Basic Parameters

The Diffuse Color

The Diffuse function sets up the color of an object. To set the color, click the Color box or select View -> Color in order to display the “Color Window,” and drag the color from the “Color Window” to the Base Color of the “Surface Window.”

Since you can easily find colors in the “Color Window” that are similar to other colors or objects, it is a useful tool for setting the color.

When you click in the Color box, the standard system color picker is displayed.

Drag the color from a color window to Shade's Color box.

The Diffuse Color of Metal or Glass

When you apply Diffuse Color to a metal or a glass, lower the Diffuse slider since those materials have more reflective color and transparent color and less diffuse color. You can handle hue and brightness more easily by lowering the Diffuse slider than if you set a darker color at the beginning.

A standard brown is set as the color of a floor.After setting up a gold or transparent glass, set the recognizable color as Diffuse Color and shift the slider down.

Setting Up BasicsS

You can set the specular values and the sense of transparency by using Specular, Reflection, Transparency, and Refraction in the Basics menu.

You can create standard surfaces by setting the Basics and Mapping. (Refer to page 81.) Create the surface you want by setting Basics first.

Setting Up Basics

Specular 1

In the Specular 1 section, adjusting the brightness and size of the object's highlight can convey the smoothness of the object's surface. A small, strong highlight can express the sense of a polished surface. A big, dull highlight can express a dry surface quality.

The eyes and tongue are expressed with high gloss.

The eyes and tongue are expressed with light gloss.

Specular 2

Using Specular 2 can express the quality of the material, like a metallic coated surface.

Light and large highlights of Specular 2 express coated metallic surfaces.


A smooth material will, to some extent, project an image of its environment. Shade can express such a reflection with the Reflection attribute. As the value of the Reflection slider becomes larger, the object becomes more like a well-polished metal. If you increase the value of this slider, it is a good idea to lower the Diffuse slider.

Since the reflection of metals includes a variety of different colors, particularly in highly polished precious metals, make the reflection color the same as the Diffuse color.

We can sense glossiness by the proper reflection of the character's legs and the floor.

Specular and reflection colors are yellow.

If specular and reflection colors are white, the surface may seem to be cheap like gold lacquer.


If the value of the Transparency slider is increased, the opposite side of the object becomes visible.

However, most transparent objects such as water, glass, etc., have the characteristic of bending light. The parameter that bends light needs to be set at the same time as the Transparency. Refraction sets up this parameter. Refraction settings become effective when the rendering method is Ray Tracing or Path Tracing.

Some standard Refractions are as follows: Water: 1.33, Glass: 1.5-1.6, Diamond: 2.42. These are used very often, so you may want to memorize them.

Since light does not bend when the refraction is 1, these glasses are difficult to identify.

When the refraction is 1.56, we can easily recognize them.

Transparency and Other Parameters

When transparency is raised, the diffuse color and reflective color become visible. These colors are all added up and rendered together. If you lower other parameters when transparency is raised, you can prevent the problem of glass becoming pure white.

Though it is not really discernable in the preview box, glass can easily turn pure white. You would see this effect when you rendered the image in the "Image Window.”

If the sum total of other parameters is larger than transparency, the image will become white as shown.

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