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### Modeling the Head

I'd like to begin with the eye. It represents an individual object so that later on, it can be moved independently of the head geometry.

#### The Eye

Placing and Scaling the Sphere

Create a Sphere object and place it behind the frontal sketch so that only a portion overlaps it and so that the sphere is visible in the frontal view (see Figure 4.24). Move the sphere along the X- and Y-axes so that the visible sphere surfaces correspond to the sketched-in pupils. Here you can use the orange handles on the sphere to make it an appropriate size. The sphere should extend to the side of the eye visible in the sketch. Of course, here you are relying on “eyeing it” in the truest sense. I decided upon a radius of 70 m, as you can see in Figure 4.25.

##### Figure 4.25. Determining the size and representation of the sphere

Even more important than the appropriate size is the precise placing of the sphere, which you can measure with the previously described method. The visible portion of the sphere should cover the whole pupil in the sketch.

If you are satisfied with the X- and Y-coordinates of the eye, move it far enough along the Z-axis in the side view that it assumes the correct position (see Figure 4.26). Please don't be irritated by the black color of the sphere in the figure. I only chose it because of the greater color contrast against the white background.

##### Figure 4.26. The final position of the eye

Converting the Sphere

Next you should convert the sphere to a polygon object since we must now access its points and polygons. Before this, however, rotate the sphere by 90 degrees around the X-axis. You should do this in order to rotate the polar region of the sphere object into the area where the pupil and the iris will be. The circular distribution of points there simplifies the modeling of the round pupil and the iris (see Figure 4.27).

##### Figure 4.27. The converted and rotated eye

Flattening Out the Sphere's Pole

Switch to the Points tool and select a point in the first point circle on the sphere's pole. If you have chosen a different sphere division than I have, you should move the frontal sketch a bit along the Z-axis towards the eye, until only the pupil part of the sphere extends beyond the sketch (see the left side of Figure 4.28). You can then quickly identify the point circle that should represent the outer limit of the pupil. Check the Coordinate Manager for the world Z-coordinate or the local Y-coordinate of the point you've selected. Mark and copy the appropriate value in the Coordinate Manager.

##### Figure 4.28. Flattening of the pupil

Now select the foremost pole of the sphere, that is, the point where the iris should be if you're looking at the eye from the front. Transfer the values you've just copied to this point. The point should move to the same height as the surrounding point circle. The sphere is thus flattened off in front (see Figure 4.28). The light line drawn into the figure is supposed to emphasize the flattening of the sphere.

If you have chosen a different sphere division, then other point circles are present between the pole and the outer pupil border. Such points should also lie at this level. Mark the corresponding point circle and transfer the read-off or copied coordinate values again. In any case, the result should be a flattening of the area of the sphere where the pupil is supposed to be.

Adding Points with the Cutter

For the next actions we'll need more points inside the pupil. You can't accomplish this with Cinema 4D's own tools; therefore, the Cutter plug-in will come in handy here. Use the Polygons tool to select all polygons between the pole and the outer border of the pupil, that is, all polygons in the flattened-off area (see the left side of Figure 4.29). Call up the Cutter by clicking its icon or using the Plug-ins menu. In just a moment you'll be able to see the result (see the right side of Figure 4.29). There is now a circular cut that creates for us the points we need inside the pupil.

##### Figure 4.29. Selective division of the pupil

Forming the Iris

As you can see in Figure 4.30, I have entered a group size of 16 × 16 units. The iris therefore has a diameter of 8 units.

##### Figure 4.30. Defining the size of the iris

Now select the pole itself and move it along the local Y-axis to the midpoint of the eye. You'll see a funnel shape that will later represent the black of the eye. You can also make things easy for yourself and enter the value 0 for the Y-coordinate. The pole point will then land precisely in the middle of the sphere (Figure 4.31).

##### Figure 4.31. Forming the iris

Shaping the Pupil

Thus the basic form is created. In order to improve appearances in close-ups, I would like to add a few details. I'll begin by selecting the point at the outer edge of the pupil (see Figure 4.32). Call up the EdgeBevel plug-in and enter an EdgeBevel offset of 3 (see Figure 4.32). Confirm using the Create button. Now there are two new point circles around the selected point circle. Each of these point circles is 3 units away from the selected point circle. This actually doesn't make any sense because the points themselves can't introduce a new shading quality to the object.

##### Figure 4.32. Emphasizing the outer border of the pupil

Creating a Bulge Around the Pupil

Now we'll change this. The original selection is maintained even after the action and we can therefore manipulate this middle point circle immediately. Enter a Y-value of 69 m in the Coordinate Manager (see Figure 4.33). The point circle is thereby pushed slightly to the front out of the layer. This creates a circular wall around the iris that will create a different shading. You now have a small bulge around the pupil. Of course it is up to you; if you'd like, you can try smaller Y-values if you think the effect shown here is too strong.

##### Figure 4.33. Placing the middle point circle anew

Editing the Iris

I would like to do something similar with the border of the iris. Select the iris point circle and use the EdgeBevel plug-in again. This time I will choose an offset of 2 (see Figure 4.34).

##### Figure 4.34. Emphasizing the border of the iris

You must now bring the still-selected point circle to another height. I have used 69 m again. Figure 4.35 shows you the rendered result of our actions. The iris now has a recognizable structure, which later on, in combination with a texture, can make the figure more lifelike. Of course here too it is up to you if you'd like to determine the offsets and heights of the moves yourself. Just be careful not to exaggerate the effect too much. After all, the eye will be covered by a second object and the eyelids. Bulges that are too big can lead to disturbing shadows, visible gaps or even the overlapping of objects.

##### Figure 4.35. Trial rendering of the frontal sphere view

Deleting Superfluous Points and Surfaces

Thus the inner eye is finished. We can now delete unnecessary points and surfaces that will play no further role in the finished object. To do this, switch to Rectangle selection and check the Active Tool window to be sure that hidden elements will also be selected. Switch to the Points tool in the side view and drag a frame around the rear portion of the sphere. Be careful that you don't select the moved pole, for this must stay in its place. The selection frame could look like the one in Figure 4.36. By using the / key, we can delete the selected points.

##### Figure 4.36. Deleting superfluous polygons and preparing a polygon selection

Here you could also have selected the appropriate polygons and deleted them. Then the points would have remained and you would have had to delete them by Optimizing the object (Structure menu). If you delete the points, the polygons between the points are deleted at the same time.

Creating an Iris Selection

Switch to live selection and allow the selection of hidden surfaces. Now switch to the polygons tool and select the funnel-shaped bulge, as shown in Figure 4.36.

Save this selection with the Set Selection command on the Selection menu and give it the name Iris (see Figure 4.37). This will enable us to use textures later, because materials can also be restricted to polygon selections.

##### Figure 4.37. Saving the iris polygon selection

Saving the Pupil Selection

Also on the Selection menu you'll find the command for expanding selections. Select this command as many times as you need to in order to select the entire pupil. Now click on the symbol for the iris selection in the Objects window and select Deselect Polygons. The iris selection is therefore removed from the active selection. Only the disc-shaped pupils remain selected. Save this selection (see Figure 4.38). Consider that the iris selection should not be active in the Objects window; otherwise, it will be overwritten. We have seen this source of errors in several of the previous chapters.

##### Figure 4.38. Selecting the pupil without the iris

Creating a Second Eye-Sphere

In order to better control the highlights and reflections on an eye, we need a second object that completely surrounds the eye. This object must form the lens-like bulge over the pupil, which ensures realistic reflexes.

As a starting object, let's use another Sphere. This one has to be a bit bigger than the eye-sphere, however, so that it won't penetrate it or overlap with it. I selected a Sphere with a radius of 70.5 m (see Figure 4.39).

##### Figure 4.39. Adding a second, bigger sphere

Select the same division as with the eye-sphere. You can follow my example and leave the default setting of 24 divisions.

Transferring the Position

So that we can now surround the eye-object quite precisely, the positions of the eye-sphere and the new sphere must match exactly. You could, of course, accomplish this by copying and entering values into the Coordinate Manager, but it's faster to use the Transfer command on the Functions menu (see Figure 4.40). Select the new sphere and call up the Transfer function. Enter the name of the object whose values should be transferred. In our case, use the name of the eye-sphere, which I have in the meantime called EyeL. Check Position and Direction so that these parameters will be transferred to the new sphere. After confirming with the OK button, the new sphere surrounds the eye-sphere.

##### Figure 4.40. Automatic placement of the new sphere

Modeling the Lens

Due to our EdgeBevel actions on the pupil, some areas penetrate the surrounding sphere despite its larger diameter. We'll fix this now by equipping the surrounding sphere with a bulge for the cornea. Here EdgeBevel will help us again because we need a hard transition between the sphere form and the lens (see Figure 4.41). Switch to the Points tool and select the point circle of the new sphere that lies over the visible bulge of the underlying pupil. In the figure, this bulge is emphasized with a black ring. Let's go ahead and use the same EdgeBevel offset here that we used for the pupil, namely 3 units.

##### Figure 4.41. Using EdgeBevel to form the beginning of the lens

The Beginning of the Lens

With this action, nothing about the shape has changed. We must, therefore, first move the new points. To do this, select the two inner point rings of the newly created point group (see Figure 4.42). Give these points a new Y-coordinate of 71 m by entering this value into the Coordinate Manager.

##### Figure 4.42. Moving point rings

Shrink the selection to the innermost of the 3 rings (see Figure 4.43) and move this ring to a Y-position of 74 m.

##### Figure 4.43. Moving the inner point ring

Now select the pole point and give it a Y-coordinate of 77 m. As you can see in Figure 4.44, these movements have created a lens-like bulge underneath which there is no more overlap with the pupil. The coordinates I have named here are just rough guidelines. Important is the most even rounding possible and that there is no more overlap with the pupil. Be careful since exaggerations of the lens formation don't just appear unrealistic; they can also cause penetration of the eyelids. Here we are interested only in softening the sphere-shaped surface in order to create reflexive differences between the area of the pupil and that of the rest of the eye.

##### Figure 4.44. Finishing the lens modeling

With this sphere, the rear portion is also of no use to us, so you should remove it by deleting points (see Figure 4.45). Even extreme eye positions will not allow us to see the rear half of the eye.

##### Figure 4.45. Deleting superfluous points

Except for the later texturing, the eye is complete. Now we will concern ourselves with the eyelids, which, of course, must lie as precisely as possible over the eyes. This is why it doesn't make any sense to model the face first and only later the eyes.

#### The Eyelids

Alternative Procedures

There are two different ways to approach the modeling of a head: the box modeling method and the extrusion method, which is made possible by EdgeExtrude. There are also some spline and NURBS-based techniques using the Cinema 4D tools that are less successful. We have already seen box modeling with the piston and the cylinders; you develop the shape you want out of a cube through stepwise division and branching-off.

My method, by contrast, starts with points. At first this may seem more tedious, but it has the decisive advantage that we have complete control over the placement of each point from the very beginning. You add the necessary details from the start and must not—as with the box modeling method—add them later on with the knife tool.

An Empty Polygon Object

We'll begin with a Polygon object from the Objects menu. This is a container for yet-to-be-created points and surfaces, so it is therefore completely empty at the beginning, just like a Null object.

Creating the Eye Opening

Switch to the Points tool and select the Add Points command from the Structure menu. As with splines, we need to hold down the / key while clicking the mouse in order to actually create new points. Before you begin, check to see that the new Polygon object in the Objects window is active and make the eye-objects invisible in the editor since these would only hide our view of the sketch. Now click along the contour of the eye opening in the frontal view. Don't place the points too close together. Ten to fourteen points should be enough. Switch to the Objects tool and move the Polygon object with the new points far enough forward along the Z-axis that the points lie just in front of the eye. Make the eye-objects visible again (see Figure 4.46).

##### Figure 4.46. Defining the contours of the inner lids

The positions of my 14 points in Figure 4.47 are intended less for rote typing in than as a rough estimation of the positions of the points. The positions are not mandatory, nor is the number of points. In addition, a subsequent movement of the points is always necessary in order to adjust the surface to fit the eye optimally. It is sufficient therefore, if you place your points like the ones here in the book.

##### Figure 4.47. The coordinates of the first points

Adding a Second Row of Points

A single row of points is of little use to us. We need another row of points in order to create surfaces around the eye opening. You can create these new points by hand or by Selecting all existing points, Copying them, and then Adding them anew. You'll find these commands on the Edit menu of the Structure window. Enlarge the newly added points so that there is a visible distance between the old and new points. The new points should lie a bit in front of the old ones, a little further away from the eye (see Figure 4.48). Move individual points among the new points so that sensible connections between the points will be possible. The old and new points will be connected with surfaces.

##### Figure 4.48. Duplicated and connected points

Creating Surfaces Manually

From the Structure menu, select Create Polygon and one after another, click the points that you would like connected with surfaces. Always double-click on the last point to generate the surface. As you can see on the right side of Figure 4.48, I have used mostly rectangular polygons to connect the points. This is a good idea when the points in question are directly across from one another. The only exception is the inner corner of the eye where the tear duct will be later on. There I have deleted some of the new points and placed them elsewhere. This is in order to reduce the number of points in the vicinity between the nose and eyes since we will not need so many points there.

Through this reduction, we are forced to use a triangular polygon, one that you might otherwise like to avoid in a Hyper NURBS because triangles that appear repeatedly can cause ugly shadows. Here, however, since there is just one triangle and since the area in question is very small, we shouldn't have any problems.

After you have moved and connected all the points, place the Polygon object, which I have called Eye in the Objects window, into a Hyper NURBS object. Here already we can examine the interpolated process of the surfaces.

Forming the Edge of the Lids

Select the entire inner point ring and start EdgeExtrude without confirming specific entries with the Create button. Reduce the size of the new point group with the Scale tool and move the new points a little bit toward the eye (see the white points in Figure 4.49). The small distance in the frontal view between the two inner point rings will ensure a sharp curve in the Hyper NURBS, which will come quite close to the edge of a lid.

##### Figure 4.49. Extruded edge in Hyper NURBS

As you can see in the trial rendering in Figure 4.49, the small distances between the points in the inner area of the lids ensure a sharp bending and a closer approximation of the form we have created.

Giving the Lids Thickness

Select the points you have just created and extrude these again with EdgeExtrude. Just move the new points to the rear as in Figure 4.50. This movement ensures that the lids will have some thickness and that they will later close the gap between lid and eye.

##### Figure 4.50. Extruding toward the eye

The Tear Duct

The only exception to this movement toward the rear should be the point that you have created through repeated extruding in the tear duct corner. You must drag this point forward and a bit upwards (see Figure 4.51). As you can see, by moving this point you are automatically creating a bulge for the tear duct.

##### Figure 4.51. Forming the tear duct

In the last step, you'll need to select and extrude the newly created points again. Once again, the newly moved tear duct point belongs to these. Enlarge the new points as a group and leave them in precisely the same place. The Hyper NURBS will “roll” into an area behind the eyelids that we won't be able to see later on.

The extruded point of the tear duct should also disappear beneath the tear duct surface, that is, it should be moved a little toward the rear in the direction of the corner of the eye. In contrast to the other points, however, it must also be moved closer to the eye so that there is no visible hole between the tear duct and the eye later on.

Fitting the Lids to the Eyes

Thus we are finished with the edges of the lids and the tear duct and we must concern ourselves with fitting the lids to the eyes. This is especially important because small mistakes here will be quite obvious. Too often, you see modeled heads where the eyes were put in after the fact and where there are awkward angles between the eyes and eyelids that extend all the way to the back of the head. Take your time here; it's worth it.

Select small point groups that belong together and move them toward the eye so that there are no more visible holes. Because the Hyper NURBS form sometimes deviates a lot from the polygon shape, don't let it irritate you if individual points or polygons already disappear into the eye or cut it. Only the Hyper NURBS surface and its course are important (see Figure 4.52).

##### Figure 4.52. Fitting to the shape of the eye

To check your work, use the Camera window and rotate around the eye to see if there are any holes. The lid should snuggle against the eye all around.

The Upper Eyelid

Now select the entire upper edge of the eye (see the black points in Figure 4.53) and extrude these points with EdgeExtrude. Move the new points upwards and a bit toward the eye (see Figure 4.54). Don't orient yourself exclusively by the eye-sphere. The distance can be somewhat larger. Only the point at the top left of the tear duct gets special treatment, for here a small fold is often visible. In Figure 4.53 this is the second point from the bottom on the left-hand side; it's marked in black. Drag this point forwards, away from the eye. You can see how this movement might look in Figure 4.55.

##### Figure 4.55. Indicating the fold in the upper lid

The Fold in the Upper Lid

You can already see what the next step has to be, for the upper lid is not just a piece of taut skin; it folds itself in half softly. There is a fold that we can create with an EdgeExtrude extrusion followed by a movement away from the eye. To do this, select the upper edge of the eye-object all the way up to the inner corner of the eye. Move the new points together a bit forwards as shown in Figure 4.55.

The fold is only visible if we pull the surface a little bit in the opposite direction, just as we did for the bulge in the iris. Therefore, extrude the new points again and push them a little bit to the rear and upwards. Figure 4.56 shows the test rendering for one possible result.

##### Figure 4.56. Extruding the whole edge of the eye

Soft End of the Fold

Because this fold should not reach all the way into the inner corner of the eye, I have deleted some of the new points there and manually closed the surfaces. Due to the missing points, the distances bridged are greater and therefore the bending of the Hyper NURBS is smaller. With surfaces with greater distances between points, you cannot create such extreme folds as you can in areas with a high point concentration. I could therefore even avoid using triangular polygons. You should use only a single triangular polygon at the end of the fold. As you can see in the test rendering in Figure 4.56, this doesn't have any negative effects on the shading of the Hyper NURBS. As you can see, the impulse to avoid triangles in Hyper NURBS is unfounded.

Enlarging the Eye

Figure 4.56 suggests the next step, for after the fold in the upper lid is complete, you can enlarge the eye as a whole. To do this, select all exterior points and extrude and scale them. The new points should lie close to the old ones. This already suggests the movement to the nose on the one side and to the cheek and eyebrow on the other. The points on the outer corner of the eye, by contrast, wander a little toward the rear around the eye. Ensure, perhaps by using manually-created surfaces, that the eye has an oval and closed shape when regarded from the front. In Figure 4.57 you can see where I have deleted points and closed the areas again with new surfaces. This is the case in the area of the upper corner of the eye, in order to weaken the fold in the eyelid toward the outside and at the same time, reduce the number of points there.

##### Figure 4.57. The current state of things without Hyper NURBS smoothing

A final extrusion of the outer edge, shown in Figure 4.58, expands the eye so far that we can later connect the nose, cheek, forehead, and side of the head directly to it. The eye socket bounded by the skull bones is therefore just as hidden as the eye itself.

##### Figure 4.58. Creating a closing edge around the eye

If, in the next steps, you discover disturbing differences in shading—as in Figure 4.58 in the vicinity of the tear duct—you can normally use the Normal Move command on the Structure menu to clean things up. The twisted normals can occur due to the plug-ins or the manual closing of surfaces; they can, however, be corrected quite easily with the command mentioned above.

In rare cases, working with EdgeBevel can cause doubled points and edges. You'll notice these because they too cause shading errors. In such cases, you should use the Optimize command on the Structure menu; it will combine the doubled points and polygons and thereby solve the problem. This is just a marginal note in case you should encounter such effects.

We are otherwise finished with modeling the eyelids and the whole eye area.

Figure 4.59 shows a view of the object with blended-out eye-spheres, which will later be connected to the eye area.

#### The Nose

Modeling the nose is quicker and easier than modeling the eye. There are fewer changes to small spaces for the nose and therefore you don't need as many points.

Creating a New Polygon Object

We'll begin with a new Polygon object and place in it points from the bridge of the nose to the tip of the nose and along to the upper edge of the upper lip. It's best to place these points using a side view where you have a good view of the sketch. You can deactivate and make invisible both the eye-object and the eye-spheres.

Directing Along the Symmetry Axis

I have covered the area of the nose that I just described with 12 points whose exact locations you can take from Figure 4.60. As you can see quite well there, all these points have the X-coordinate 0. The identity of these coordinates is important because we will later mirror the object across the symmetry axis. The points that are supposed to lie on such a symmetry axis should, if possible, have the same coordinate.

##### Figure 4.60. Points along the bridge of the nose in a new Polygon object

The Second Row of Points

Figure 4.61 shows the editor view with the placed points once again, as well as the next step, namely the duplication and moving of these points. You must decide to go in the direction in which the eye-object lies; in the frontal view, to the right.

##### Figure 4.61. Duplicated points along the bridge of the nose

How far to the right you move the duplicated points is a matter of measurement. As a rule of thumb, I recommend moving the whole point row to the point where the nostril begins.

Moving the Points

So that the nose will not have too broad a bridge, you also need to move the new points along the Z-coordinates. This movement must be greater at the beginning of the nose than on the forehead, at the tip of the nose or directly over the upper lip. Precisely there, you can pull the points a bit forwards in order to form the depression between the nose and lips. Figure 4.62 gives you an idea of the direction and degree of this movement. As with the eye, in the initial phase here, you must create the surfaces manually.

##### Figure 4.62. Manually-created surfaces

Preparations for Forming the Nostril

Select the entire second vertical row of new points and extrude these again with EdgeExtrude. Drag the new points further to the right and, especially at the bridge of the nose, a bit deeper. Pay particular attention to the area of the nostril. So that our lives will be easier later, a single polygon should cover the entire nostril. In Figure 4.63 I have highlighted the corresponding polygon in black. Be careful that both points above the upper lip are now moved back a bit.

##### Figure 4.63. Placing the third row of points and the nostril

As you can see, the steps seem familiar here. Now select the newly-created points and extrude these with EdgeExtrude. This time, you will see movement along the Z-axis especially at the bridge of the nose and at its tip. The points to the right of the tip of the nose should reflect the maximal width of the nose in the frontal view. The points on the forehead should, as usual, be moved to the side, just like the points above the upper lip (see Figure 4.64).

##### Figure 4.64. The fourth row of points

Closing the Side

With the extrusion of the fifth row of points, we achieve the height of the cheek and have, therefore, completely described the nose. As you will note in Figure 4.65—again marked with an arrow—the area next to the tip of the nose reduces itself considerably along the Z-axis, whereas the other areas remain almost constant. As the frontal view shows, there is hardly any sideways movement.

##### Figure 4.65. The fifth row of points

The Nostril

Now switch to the Polygons tool and select the polygon that you just placed over the nostril. Extrude it toward the rear and upwards using the Extrude tool from the Structure menu. Normally you just let the polygon follow its normals. Be careful not to overstep the future mirror axis. No point of the extruded polygon should extend sideways over the points that you placed on the bridge of the nose at the beginning (see Figure 4.66). Otherwise, when you mirror, you would have an overlap in this area, which might eventually be visible through the nostril.

##### Figure 4.66. Extruding the nostril polygon

The Symmetry Object

In order to complete the still-missing half of the nose, we'll use the Symmetry object. You'll find it on the same menu as the Boolean object, which we used several times in the first chapter. The icon for the Symmetry object looks like a head with one green half and one blue half. This already suggests how useful this object can be in our example; after all, it will save us half the work. Why would we want to model another eye when we've got one already?

So that everything will function properly, you must subordinate the object to be mirrored to the Symmetry object in the Objects window on the one hand; on the other hand, you must activate the correct symmetry axis on the Symmetry objects menu. In our case, we are lucky; the XY axis is already the active symmetry axis. And if you have followed my recommendation to place the first points at the X-coordinate 0, then you should be able to see a complete nose as soon as you subordinate the nose to the Symmetry object.

Possible Sources of Errors

If you discover a hole between the two halves of the nose or if the nose-halves overlap each other, you must move the Symmetry object so that its Y-axis lies precisely on the cut edge of the half-nose. You can read this position from the Coordinate Manager by clicking a point on the cut edge. Don't forget to read off the coordinates in the world system. Then transfer the value for the world X-coordinate to the X-position of the Symmetry object. So that the Symmetry object and Polygon object won't be shoved together, you must be working with the Object Axis tool or you must remove the Polygon object briefly from the Symmetry object. If you are still having problems in some places, check to see whether all points on the cut edge really have the same X-coordinate.

Smoothing the Symmetry Object

If you've done everything right, create a new Hyper NURBS object and subordinate the Symmetry object, complete with its half-nose, to it (see Figure 4.67). The ability to nest actions in the Objects window allows you to mirror the nose and then smooth the whole object (see Figure 4.68).

##### Figure 4.68. The finished nose in the Symmetry object and the Hyper NURBS object

If you now move points into the nose-object, these will be mirrored automatically to the other side. You'll find that you're much better able to judge the whole picture than you could with just half an object. In addition, the automatic “melting“ on the bridge of the nose means that the Hyper NURBS also smoothes the area there and produces a homogenous object

Correcting the Shape

The characteristic of Hyper NURBS that the smoothed surface is always smaller than the original surface may mean that you'll need to move points on the bridge of the nose or elsewhere in order to make the nose the size you want it. Nothing stands in the way of your doing this. Be especially careful while you're moving points on the symmetry axis; each movement perpendicular to the mirror axis (here along the X-axis) causes a hole or an overlap in the corresponding place. In such cases, correct the world X-position of the point in the Coordinate Manager to reflect the world X-position of the Symmetry object.

#### Cheeks and Chin

Connecting Nose and Eye

Now it is time to connect the eye and nose. To do this, arrange the eye polygon object beneath the polygon object with the half-nose. You will then see how the Symmetry object also mirrors the eye. Thus you can see that not just individual objects, but entire hierarchies can be mirrored.

This, however, does not bring us any further along here, because there are no connecting surfaces between the nose and eye. To create these, we must put the points and surfaces of the nose and eye into one object. Select the nose-object with the eye still subordinated to it and then select the Connect command from the Function menu (see the left side of Figure 4.69).

##### Figure 4.69. Connecting eye and nose

A new object named Nose.1 will appear in the Objects window; this object now contains both objects. The old group consisting of the nose and eye is therefore superfluous and you can go ahead and delete it. Switch to the Points tool, select the Create Polygon command from the Structure menu, and close up the hole between the eye and nose at their narrowest point. The result should look like the right side of Figure 4.69. Move the normals if there are irregularities in the shading.

Shaping the Cheeks

We'll continue by lengthening the side of the nose more with EdgeExtrude and thereby forming the cheek area. To do this, select the outermost row of points on the nose and extrude these by moving the new points to the right (see the right side of Figure 4.70). As you can see in the figure and also indicated by the arrow, you'll move the points at the height of the nostril forward along the Z-axis. In the Hyper NURBS you'll see a soft fold around the nostril. Close the hole between the lower edge of the eye and the new points with a manually created polygon. I have marked the surfaces in question with white in the figure.

##### Figure 4.70. Widening the wing of the nose to the cheek

In the same way, add row upon row, as shown in Figure 4.71. As you can see there, the area around the mouth recedes more than the area around the cheekbones. The surfaces between the newly extruded points and the eye must be completed by hand, as shown previously in Figure 4.70. Let the lower points follow the shape of the upper lip, whereby there should be a curving of the point row to the corner of the mouth. I have indicated this curved shape with the somewhat thicker black points in Figure 4.71. Such a curve will ease the animation of the mouth and lower jaw later on.

##### Figure 4.71. Continuing to the corner of the mouth

If you calculate from this stage of development, a trial rendering in the editor window will look like Figure 4.72. You can clearly see the furrow next to the nostril here.

##### Figure 4.72. The finished cheek

Optimizing

Let's have a quick look at the model and do some sensible simplification. Thus I have, for example, deleted points directly underneath the eye and closed the holes manually with larger surfaces (see Figure 4.73). I did this because this way, we won't need so many points on the side of the head. It wouldn't be sensible to “drag along” so many points. As you can also see from the white points in the figure, this time you should select all side points of the model for the following EdgeExtrude extrusions.

##### Figure 4.73. Point distribution in detail

The Side of the Head

You will now extrude these points several times and move them toward the rear, as shown in Figure 4.74. Thus we have already reached the area where the side of the head lies. Don't move just along the Z-axis; instead, push the cheekbone area a bit to the outside before you take the surface back to the inside. Nothing looks more unrealistic than a completely flat surface on a head. Be careful also that the area that is connected directly to the corner of the eye is moved toward the back along the Z-axis sooner than the rest. You'll see this in the upper left of Figure 4.74. For the side stretching, you can use our frontal sketch to orient yourself approximately at the height of the ear.

##### Figure 4.74. Lengthening the side of the head

In a trial rendering, this looks like Figure 4.75.

##### Figure 4.75. The current model in test rendering

Jaw and Chin

If you have reached the height of the ear after two or three extrusions, then we can continue with the lower part of the face, that is, with the jaw and chin. For this, select all lower points along the side of the head and forwards to the corner of the mouth (see the top of Figure 4.76). Extrude and move the new points a bit downward and toward the symmetry axis up to the point where the corner-of-the-mouth-point originated, on the lower edge of the lower lip (see the bottom of Figure 4.76).

##### Figure 4.76. Lengthening in the direction of the chin

Distribute the new points on the side somewhat expansively and try to pick up the lines of the sections connected with these points. You must always try to create edges without noticeable corners. Repeat these steps approximately three times until you have reached the symmetry axis (see Figure 4.77). Be careful that the points underneath the chin move forwards. That is where the beginning of the neck will be.

##### Figure 4.77. The completed chin

Don't make the chin too pointed; instead, take the next-to-last point row before the symmetry axis noticeably forwards. In the side view of Figure 4.77, you can really see what I meant by the creation of curved edges. The edges run in a more or less curved “S” from the height of the eye to the cheek and then forward to the chin. In the frontal view, the edges sooner trace out a half “U.”

#### The Mouth

The foremost part of the face is complete but for the forehead and the mouth. You have to admit that thanks to extruding edges, we have quickly achieved good results. We didn't even have to reach for the Knife tool or other tools that are unsuitable for working with closed areas. The Polygon object helps us keep everything in perspective.

The Corner of the Mouth

Let's continue using this technique and attempt the modeling of the lips. Because the pointed form of the points in the corner of the mouth is not well-suited for an even division, you should close this area quickly with a triangular polygon like the one marked in white in Figure 4.78. Without this step, we would be forced to connect the lips, which are normally separated from one another, with triangles at the corners of the mouth. This would cause ugly shadows and could lead to complications when it's time for animation.

##### Figure 4.78. Preparing the corners of the mouth

The Edge of the Lips

Select all the points around the mouth opening and extrude these in the familiar way. Scale the new point group a bit toward the inside and move it a little to the front (see Figure 4.79). Then move each point individually as precisely as possible to the outer edge of the lips. You can see this line very well in the two sketches. It may be necessary to move the points of the old edge of the mouth in order to make some space. The result should be two parallel lines of points around the mouth.

##### Figure 4.79. Creating a hard edge on the outer edge of the lips

As you already know from modeling the eyelids, closely placed points and surfaces cause a stronger pull on the part of the Hyper NURBS. This area around the lips will look less soft in the Hyper NURBS than, for example, the cheeks or the chin. This is a good thing here, for a visible difference between the face and the lips is visible even without texturing, that is, the coloring of the areas. In addition, a small edge around the lips approximates reality, because the muscles that are responsible for lip movement run under the skin there.

Using the same technique, you should extrude this area again. Once again you should move just a little bit, this time in the opposite direction. Be careful that the two points directly in the corners of the mouth do not take part in this forward/backward movement too. The corner of the mouth itself is sooner free of folds and soft. There, you should leave the points at their Z-coordinate and move them only a little toward the inside and toward the symmetry axis (see Figure 4.80).

##### Figure 4.80. Closing the edge around the lips and forming the lips

The Lips

One more extrusion, this time at a greater distance from the old row of points, will form the actual lips. Repeat this extrusion two or three more times, as shown in Figure 4.81. The point rows for the upper and lower lips should meet. Be careful that the lower lip is thicker than the upper lip. In order to increase the rounding, you can even perform one more extrusion and move the points inside the mouth. Because of the Hyper NURBS smoothing, however, it may be necessary to change the point position at the place where the lips meet again later on in order to close up the hole between them. As you know, a Hyper NURBS shrinks the shape a bit and it will therefore shrink the lips somewhat.

##### Figure 4.81. Putting the lips together

If you now move the points on the upper edge of the lower lip a little upward—avoid sideways movement so that the symmetry object can work properly—then you should see a shape like the one at the bottom of Figure 4.81 or in Figure 4.82. As you can see there, there are no disturbing shadows in the corners of the mouth and the slight edge around the lips looks entirely natural. We'll complete the other details later on with textures. The modeling of creases and folds in the lips doesn't make much sense at this point.

#### Forehead and Neck

Now let's turn our attention to the upper half of the head, for there we are still missing the forehead and back of the head. Because the form here doesn't require fine structures, we can take care of this quite quickly. Select all points on the upper edge of the object and extrude these several times. Move the new points so that they resemble the sketches. Be careful with the area directly above the nose. There it often happens that the slight bulging of the bridge of the nose “wanders“ too far into the forehead and creates an unnatural bulge there. Therefore, you should first place the surface that is directly over the bridge of the nose one level back. Try to accomplish this in as few steps as possible so that the number of points on the side of the head doesn't get too high.

Reducing Points

You can minimize this problem if you delete the last point on the side of the head with every second extrusion and close the hole with a new polygon (see Figure 4.83). I have highlighted the polygon in question in black. As you can see in the figure, three point rows are connected in a single point in order to achieve the lowest point distribution possible around the ear opening; this is desirable since the ear itself doesn't require very many closing surfaces.

##### Figure 4.83. Modeling the forehead and back of the head

Continue carrying out these steps until you have reached the neck. Check to see that all extruded points lie on an arc. Otherwise, this mistake will carry over quickly to the whole back of the head and it will be visible as a crease or longish lump.

Connecting the Neck and Jaw

Leave the area around the ear open and close the outer edges of the neck and jaw with some manually created surfaces (see Figure 4.84).

##### Figure 4.84. Connecting the neck and jaw

The Throat

Make the side of the neck a bit broader. This is where the muscles and tendons that stabilize the head and help it bend to the side are located. Next select the entire lower edge of the head and lengthen this area by extruding it once with EdgeExtrude. Almost automatically, you'll see the beginning of the throat (see Figure 4.85).

##### Figure 4.85. Forming the throat

Because in this example we only intend to model the head, you don't need to make the throat especially long. A small beginning will do.

#### The Ear

Now we're just missing the ear. Its swirling structure may leave you feeling a bit uneasy.

Begin by selecting the points of the ear hole on the head. Extrude these points and scale the new points a little toward the inside. The new positions should be chosen so that they reflect the beginning of the ear (see Figure 4.86).

##### Figure 4.86. Forming the beginning of the ear

The Beginning of the Ear

As you can see in the figure, the new points lie closer together at the forward edge than at the rear edge. This is because the ear grows into the head more in the front and the auricle at the rear is further away from the head. In addition it makes sense to move the rearmost point a little into the head. Here I really mean just a small movement. Later on, the Hyper NURBS will help us form a more distinctive surface in the area between the head and the rear auricle.

For the next step, it makes sense to concentrate just on the ear for a moment. Therefore, select all polygons that are directly connected to the ear-hole and Invert this selection. You'll find the appropriate command on the Selection menu.

Switch to the Points tool and select the inner edge of the ear. Extrude these points along the X-axis toward the outside and enlarge the area in question by moving individual points so that all points lie on the desired edge of the yet-to-be-modeled auricle. The movement along the X-axis will therefore be more noticeable in the rear points than at the beginning of the ear, where hardly any movement occurs. You'll have a shape like the one in Figure 4.87.

##### Figure 4.87. Masking disturbing parts of the object and extruding the ear

A New Sketch for the Ear

To continue working now without a sketch would be very difficult. I have therefore prepared a rough sketch based on photographs. You'll find this sketch on the CD for this book. Create a new material, load the sketch in the Light channel and place the material on a plane with the appropriate measurements.

Rotate and scale the sketch so that it looks like Figure 4.88. With this, we have a good reference for the position and size of the structures. With respect to the sideways curving, we'll need to use our instincts. Often a glance in the mirror is helpful for making progress in your “self-portrait.” Unfortunately, there are no mathematical or geometrical relationships as with the construction of the head that can help us here. So let's use the sketch and see how we progress.

##### Figure 4.88. Using a sketch for forming the auricle

The Edge of the Ear

In the first step, we must form the bulging edge at the top and rear of the ear. Select the points there and extrude them along the X-axis and toward the inside of the ear. Starting with these points and the other, still-open edges of the ear, begin closing the auricle by extruding with EdgeExtrude and manually closing individual areas. The trick here is to place point rows along important lines of the sketch whenever possible. These are always the areas where you would expect a deepening of the auricle. Thus, place the points on the edges of these deepenings and bridge the suggested depressions with a few polygons. This provides us with the opportunity to extrude the surfaces over the depressions to the inside using Cinema 4D's Extrude tool. On the right side of Figure 4.89, there is such an extruded area outlined in white.

##### Figure 4.89. Closing and forming the auricle

As you can see, otherwise the auricle is bridged with just a few polygons.

Next to the edge of the ear, there are just two areas highlighted on the sketch that will have a significant effect on the inside of the auricle. These areas must be extruded to the inside. In the shaded view in Figure 4.90, you can see the two depressions quite well. If you have followed my advice and placed the points as early as possible on the edges of these regions, you will achieve your goal with just two polygon extrusions.

##### Figure 4.90. Trial rendering of the auricle

The Ear Canal

Of course your ear still looks like a closed surface. It is necessary, therefore, at least to suggest the ear canal. You can best achieve this with the combination of two polygon extrusions. First extrude one polygon near the lower edge of the auricle into the head. The ear canal results. Now select another polygon at the forward edge of the ear directly above the ear canal and extrude this a bit toward the inside of the ear. You should see a small bulge that hides the ear canal. The shaded area of Figure 4.91 shows you this bulge quite clearly. The actual ear canal is therefore hidden, but it will still influence the shadows in the auricle in this area.

##### Figure 4.91. The finished ear

Making the Head Visible Again

Now the most important structures are present and you can move individual points as you wish; you can also raise or depress smaller areas with polygon extrusions. In principle, however, everything is finished. You can, then, make the rest of the head visible again. You'll find the command for this on the Selection menu. You should be using the same tool that you used when making the head-polygons invisible, that is, the Polygons tool. As if by magic, the head then appears in the view windows, complete with a suitable ear (see Figure 4.92).

##### Figure 4.92. The completed head

With the head as a reference, you can now check the slant of the ears, that is, how far they stick out.

In this and the two following chapters, we will not be modeling a whole body, but in principle, you could also use the procedures described above for the rest of the body. Because there are not many areas with such high concentrations of detail as the head, you can proceed more quickly. I would, however, like to give this head an android torso. Therefore, we will finish here with the modeling of organic forms and devote ourselves in the next chapter to the mechanical parts that we'll use to create the torso.

Closing the Throat

In order to close the head toward the bottom, select the lower throat edge of the head and extrude the points there with EdgeExtrude once more to the inside and once upwards (see Figure 4.93). During the extrusion to the inside, be careful to move the point on the symmetry axis back there. The purpose of this movement is to give the illusion of substantial material in the Hyper NURBS. The previously skin-thin edge there was not convincing.

##### Figure 4.93. Rounding off the beginning of the throat

Adding the Missing Eye

Finally, you need to add the right eye. Duplicate the group for the left eye and put a minus sign in front of the X-position for the new group in the Coordinate Manager. If your head-object lies precisely at the origin, then if you create a still-empty Polygon object, the eye should be moved precisely to the other side of the Symmetry object and placed optimally (see Figure 4.94).

##### Figure 4.94. Duplicating the eye

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